Hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas : impacts from the hydraulic fracturing water cycle on drinking water resources in the United States (final report)
- text file; PDF; 41 MB.
- Washington, DC : Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2016.
- Physical description
- 1 online resource : color illustrations
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- United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development, author, publisher.
- Includes bibliographical references.
- "This final report provides a review and synthesis of available scientific information concerning the relationship between hydraulic fracturing activities and drinking water resources in the United States. The report is organized around activities in the hydraulic fracturing water cycle and their potential to impact drinking water resources. The stages include: (1) acquiring water to be used for hydraulic fracturing (Water Acquisition), (2) mixing the water with chemical additives to prepare hydraulic fracturing fluids (Chemical Mixing), (3) injecting the hydraulic fracturing fluids into the production well to create fractures in the targeted production zone (Well Injection), (4) collecting the wastewater that returns through the well after injection (Produced Water Handling), and (5) managing the wastewater via disposal or reuse methods (Wastewater Disposal and Reuse). EPA found scientific evidence that hydraulic fracturing activities can impact drinking water resources under some circumstances. The report identifies certain conditions under which impacts from hydraulic fracturing activities can be more frequent or severe."
- Publication date
- Title Variation
- Also known as: EPA's Study of hydraulic fracturing and its potentialiImpact on drinking water resources
- "EPA-600-R-16-236Fa"--PDF cover of main report.