[Last will and testament, 1108 June, of Bernard de Paders before his departure for the Holy Land]
- Latin. Latin.
- Languedoc, 1108.
- Physical description
- 1 leaf : parchment ; 210 x 370 mm
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|MISC 2011||In-library use|
- Padarnis, Bernardus de, first party.
- A will drawn up prior to the testator’s departure on pilgrimage ‘ad sanctum sepulchrum domini’, i.e. to the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
- Publication date
- Title Variation
- Last Will and Testament of Bernard de Pézènes before his departure for the Holy Land
- Ms. leaf.
- Tile supplied by cataloger. Parallel title from label on portfolio material was once housed in.
- Layout: Written in 21 long lines.
- Script: Written in a late Carolingian script. Medieval and later endorsements, ‘Num[er]o 109’ inscribed in ink in an eighteenth-century hand, paper label inscribed ‘No. 15’ in a nineteenth-century hand.
- Origin: Written in Languedoc, France, in June 1180.
- Shelfmark: Stanford University Libraries, Misc 2011.
- Open for research. Note that material must be requested at least 36 hours in advance of intended use.
- Public domain. There are no restrictions on use of public domain material.
- Purchase; 2016. Accession MSS 2017-032.
- Bernard de Paders (Bernardus de Padarnis, or possibly Bernard de Pézènes) seems to have belonged to a branch of the aristocratic Languedoc family of Montesquieu; he was probably the nephew of Raymond Bernard II de Montesquieu, one of the witnesses to the will. The other witnesses are Artinaud ‘p[ri]oris’, Pierre Bertrand, Arnaud de Montesquieu and Bernard Lautier, and the scribe is named as Raymond Pierre. The beneficiaries are the church of St. Saviour at Villemagne (now Villemagne-l’Argentière in Languedoc-Roussillon), to which Bernard leaves a farm in Launas and all its appurtenances (the annual income in terms of rent, barley, wine and corn is listed) and also ‘two parts’ (i.e. presumably a fifth) of all that he owns; the church of St. Michael in Paders, to which he gives all his dîmes in its parish and also a farm in Tongas; his sister Adalaïs and her children, to whom he gives his vines in Tongas and also the feudal honours that he holds in Paders (with the exception of the farm rented by Bernard Lautier, which he leaves to his brother Guiraud); the church of Notre Dame at Cassan, to which he bequeaths a third of everything he owns ‘p[ro]pt[er] remediu[m] anime mee’; Arnaud de Montesquieu and his brother Bernard, to whom he leaves two farms in Comas held in fee from one ‘Ramardo Salomone’, all that he has with the man known as ‘Petrus Durantus’ in the village called ‘Montezels’, all that he has in the place called ‘Corbes’ and the feudal honour that he has in Vailhan, with a quart of olive oil to be given annually by the brothers to Saint Sauveur in Villemagne ‘p[ro]pt[er] remediu[m] anime mee’. While Bernard was evidently unmarried and from an aristocratic family, he was probably a genuine pilgrim rather than a crusader. Bohemond of Taranto had travelled around France gathering recruits for his ill-fated crusade of 1107 but, while it is possible that Bohemond inspired Bernard, either directly or indirectly, the present document obviously post-dates the crusade. Bernard’s reasons for travelling to the Holy Land are, moreover, stated at the beginning of the document. He apparently saw it as a proclamation of his faith and as beneficial for the salvation of his soul, an opportunity to be seized while circumstances allowed: ‘Q[uonia]m tenet pium et om[n]ino iudicat tenendu[m] fidelis religiositas [Christi]anor[um] . . . . Bonu[m] e[st] ad salute[m] anime ut aliq[ui]d boni op[er]er: dum e[st] dies, festinant eni[m] tenebre noctis, in quibus nulli licebit op[er]ari op[er]a lucis’. There is a clear echo here of Christ’s words in the Gospel of John, 9,4: ‘me oportet operari opera eius qui misit me donec dies est venit nox quando nemo potest operari’ (‘I must work the works of him that sent me, whilst it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work’).
- Action note
- Item cataloged based on dealer description.
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