# Efficient speaker verification using Gaussian mixture model component clustering. [electronic resource].

- Imprint
- Washington, D.C. : United States. Dept. of Energy. ; Oak Ridge, Tenn. : distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 2012
- Physical description
- 1 online resource (48 p. ) : digital, PDF file.

## Online

### Available online

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## Description

### Creators/Contributors

- Contributor
- Sandia National Laboratories. Researcher
- United States. Dept. of Energy. Sponsor
- United States. Dept. of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information. Distributor
- De Leon, Phillip L. Author
- McClanahan, Richard D. Author

### Contents/Summary

- Summary
- In speaker verification (SV) systems that employ a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to make decisions on a supervector derived from Gaussian mixture model (GMM) component mean vectors, a significant portion of the computational load is involved in the calculation of the a posteriori probability of the feature vectors of the speaker under test with respect to the individual component densities of the universal background model (UBM). Further, the calculation of the sufficient statistics for the weight, mean, and covariance parameters derived from these same feature vectors also contribute a substantial amount of processing load to the SV system. In this paper, we propose a method that utilizes clusters of GMM-UBM mixture component densities in order to reduce the computational load required. In the adaptation step we score the feature vectors against the clusters and calculate the a posteriori probabilities and update the statistics exclusively for mixture components belonging to appropriate clusters. Each cluster is a grouping of multivariate normal distributions and is modeled by a single multivariate distribution. As such, the set of multivariate normal distributions representing the different clusters also form a GMM. This GMM is referred to as a hash GMM which can be considered to a lower resolution representation of the GMM-UBM. The mapping that associates the components of the hash GMM with components of the original GMM-UBM is referred to as a shortlist. This research investigates various methods of clustering the components of the GMM-UBM and forming hash GMMs. Of five different methods that are presented one method, Gaussian mixture reduction as proposed by Runnall's, easily outperformed the other methods. This method of Gaussian reduction iteratively reduces the size of a GMM by successively merging pairs of component densities. Pairs are selected for merger by using a Kullback-Leibler based metric. Using Runnal's method of reduction, we were able to achieve a factor of 2.77 reduction in a posteriori probability calculations with no loss in accuracy when the original UBM consisted of 256 component densities. When clustering was implemented with a 1024 component UBM, we achieved a computation reduction of 5 with no loss in accuracy and a reduction by a factor of 10 with less than 2.4% relative loss in accuracy.

### Subjects

### Bibliographic information

- Publication date
- 2012
- Note
- Published through SciTech Connect.
- 04/01/2012.
- "sand2012-2398"
- De Leon, Phillip L.; McClanahan, Richard D.
- Funding information
- AC04-94AL85000