Introduction Principal Areas of Biomechanics Approach in This Book Problem References Review of Human Anatomy and Some Basic Terminology Gross (Whole-Body) Modeling Position and Direction Terminology Terminology for Common Movements Skeletal Anatomy Major Joints Major Muscle Groups Anthropometric Data Problems References Methods of Analysis I: Review of Vectors, Dyadics, Matrices, and Determinants Vectors Vector Algebra: Addition and Multiplication by Scalars Vector Algebra: Multiplication of Vectors Dyadics Matrices/Arrays Determinants Relationship of 3 x 3 Determinants, Permutation Symbols, and Kronecker Delta Functions Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors, and Principal Directions Maximum and Minimum Eigenvalues and the Associated Eigenvectors Use of MATLAB(R) Elementary MATLAB(R) Operations and Functions Problems References Methods of Analysis II: Forces and Force Systems Forces: Vector Representations Moments of Forces Moments of Forces about Lines Systems of Forces Special Force Systems Principle of Action-Reaction References Methods of Analysis III: Mechanics of Materials Concepts of Stress Concepts of Strain Principal Values of Stress and Strain Two-Dimensional Example: Mohr's Circle Elementary Stress-Strain Relations General Stress-Strain (Constitutive) Relations Equations of Equilibrium and Compatibility Use of Curvilinear Coordinates Review of Elementary Beam Theory Thick Beams Curved Beams Singularity Functions Elementary Illustrative Examples Listing of Selected Beam Displacement and Bending Moment Results Magnitude of Transverse Shear Stress Torsion of Bars Torsion of Members with Noncircular and Thin-Walled Cross Sections Energy Methods Problems References Methods of Analysis IV: Modeling of Biosystems Multibody (Lumped Mass) Systems Lower-Body Arrays Whole-Body, Head/Neck, and Hand Models Gross-Motion Modeling of Flexible Systems Problems References Tissue Biomechanics Hard and Soft Tissue Bones Physical Properties of Bone Bone Development (Wolff's Law) Bone Failure (Fracture and Osteoporosis) Muscle Tissue Cartilage Ligaments/Tendons Scalp, Skull, and Brain Tissue Skin Tissue Problems References Kinematical Preliminaries: Fundamental Equations Points, Particles, and Bodies Particle, Position, and Reference Frames Particle Velocity Particle Acceleration Absolute and Relative Velocity and Acceleration Vector Differentiation, Angular Velocity Two Useful Kinematic Procedures Configuration Graphs Use of Configuration Graphs to Determine Angular Velocity Application with Biosystems Angular Acceleration Transformation Matrix Derivatives Relative Velocity and Acceleration of Two Points Fixed on a Body Singularities Occurring with Angular Velocity Componentsand Orientation Angles Rotation Dyadics Euler Parameters Euler Parameters and Angular Velocity Inverse Relations between Angular Velocity and Euler Parameters Numerical Integration of Governing Dynamical Equations Problems References Kinematic Preliminaries: Inertia Force Considerations Applied Forces and Inertia Forces Mass Center Equivalent Inertia Force Systems Problems Human Body Inertia Properties Second Moment Vectors, Moments, and Products of Inertia Inertia Dyadics Sets of Particles Parallel Axis Theorem Eigenvalues of Inertia: Principal Directions Eigenvalues of Inertia: Symmetrical Bodies Application with Human Body Models Problems References Kinematics of Human Body Models Notation, Degrees of Freedom, and Coordinates Angular Velocities Generalized Coordinates Partial Angular Velocities Transformation Matrices: Recursive Formulation Generalized Speeds Angular Velocities and Generalized Speeds Angular Acceleration Mass Center Positions Mass Center Velocities Mass Center Accelerations Summary: Human Body Model Kinematics Problems References Kinetics of Human Body Models Applied (Active) and Inertia (Passive) Forces Generalized Forces Generalized Applied (Active) Forces on a Human Body Model Forces Exerted across Articulating Joints Contribution of Gravity (Weight) Forces to the GeneralizedActive Forces Generalized Inertia Forces Problems References Dynamics of Human Body Models Kane's Equations Generalized Forces for a Human Body Model Dynamical Equations Formulation for Numerical Solutions Constraint Equations Constraint Forces Constrained System Dynamics Determination of Orthogonal Complement Arrays Problems References Numerical Methods Governing Equations Numerical Development of the Governing Equations Outline of Numerical Procedures Algorithm Accuracy and Efficiency Problems Reference Simulations and Applications Review of Human Modeling for Dynamic Simulation Human Body in Free Space: A "Spacewalk" Simple Weight Lift Walking 15.5 Swimming Crash-Victim Simulation I: Modeling Crash-Victim Simulation II: Vehicle Environment Modeling Crash-Victim Simulation III: Numerical Analysis Burden Bearing: Waiter/Tray Simulations Other Applications Problems References Appendix: Anthropometric Data Tables Glossary Bibliography Index.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)
Publisher's Summary
In the last three or four decades, studies of biomechanics have expanded from simple topical applications of elementary mechanics to entire areas of study. Studies and research in biomechanics now exceed those in basic mechanics itself, underlining the continuing and increasing importance of this area of study. With an emphasis on biodynamic modeling, Fundamentals of Biomechanics provides an accessible, basic understanding of the principles of biomechanics analyses. Following a brief introductory chapter, the book reviews gross human anatomy and basic terminology currently in use. It describes methods of analysis from elementary mathematics to elementary mechanics and goes on to fundamental concepts of the mechanics of materials. It then covers the modeling of biosystems and provides a brief overview of tissue biomechanics. The author then introduces the concepts of biodynamics and human body modeling, looking at the fundamentals of the kinematics, the kinetics, and the inertial properties of human body models. He supplies a more detailed analysis of kinematics, kinetics, and dynamics of these models and discusses the numerical procedures for solving the governing dynamical equations. The book concludes with a review of a few example applications of biodynamic models such as simple lifting, maneuvering in space, walking, swimming, and crash victim simulation. The inclusion of extensive lists of problems of varying difficulty, references, and an extensive bibliography add breadth and depth to the coverage. Focusing on biodynamic modeling to a degree not found in other texts, this book equips readers with the expertise in biomechanics they need for advanced studies, research, and employment in biomedical engineering. (source: Nielsen Book Data)