- Threshold of Complexity
- Universal Neuron
- Predicting the Unpredictable.
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- Quasi-Ergodicity
- Period-1 Rules.
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- Period-2 Rules
- Period-3 Rules, Period-6 Rules, and Permutive Rules.
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Using illuminating color graphics, this volume exposes the global dynamical behaviors of the 50 (out of 256) local rules via their revealing basin tree diagrams.

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This novel book introduces cellular automata from a rigorous nonlinear dynamics perspective. It supplies the missing link between nonlinear differential and difference equations to discrete symbolic analysis. A surprisingly useful interpretations of cellular automata in terms of neural networks is also given. The book provides a scientifically sound and original analysis, and classifications of the empirical results presented in Wolfram's monumental "New Kind of Science.".

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Volume IV continues the author's odyssey on l-D cellular automata as chronicled in Volumes I, II and III, by uncovering a novel quasi-ergodicity phenomenon involving orbits meandering among omega-limit orbits of complex (group 5) and hyper (group 6) Bernoulli rules. This discovery is embellished with analytical formulas characterizing the fractal properties of characteristic functions, as well as explicit formulas for generating colorful and pedagogically revealing isomorphic basin tree diagrams. Many new results were derived and proved by uncovering subtle symmetries endowed by various subsets of the 256 Boolean cubes. For the first time, rigorous analyses were used to identify 67, out off 256 , local rules whose asymptotic behaviors consist of robust period-l orbits. The highlight of this continuing odyssey is the discovery of an isolated period-3240 Isle of Eden hidden among the dense omega-limit orbits of Wolfram's remarkable 'random number generating' rule 30. This is the largest gem known to-date and readers are challenged to uncover even larger ones.

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This invaluable volume ends the quest to uncover the secret recipes for predicting the long-term evolution of a ring of identical elementary cells where the binary state of each cell during each generation of an attractor (i.e. after the transients had disappeared) is determined uniquely by the state of its left and right neighbors in the previous generation, as decreed by one of 256 truth tables. As befitting the contents aimed at school children, it was found pedagogically appealing to code each truth table by coloring each of the 8 vertices of a cubical graph in red (for binary state 1), or blue (for binary state 0), forming a toy universe of 256 Boolean cubes, each bearing a different vertex color combination. The corresponding collection of 256 distinct Boolean cubes are then segegrated logically into 6 distinct groups where members from each group share certain common dynamics which allow the long-term evolution of the color configuration of each bit string, of arbitrary length, to be predicted painlessly, via a toy-like gaming procedure, without involving any calculation. In particular, the evolution of any bit string bearing any initial color configuration which resides in any one of the possibly many distinct attractors, can be systematically predicted, by school children who are yet to learn arithmetic, via a simple recipe, for any Boolean cube belonging to group 1, 2, 3, or 4. The simple recipe for predicting the time-asymptotic behaviors of Boolean cubes belonging to groups 1, 2, and 3 has been covered in Vols. I, II, ..., V. This final volume continues the recipe for each of the 108, out of 256, local rules, dubbed the Bernoulli rules, belonging to group 4. Here, for almost half of the toy universe, surprisingly simple recipes involving only the following three pieces of information are derived in Vol. VI; namely, a positive integer , a positive, or negative, integer , and a sign parameter > 0, or < 0. In particular, given any color configuration belonging to an attractor of any one of the 108 Boolean cubes from group 4, any child can predict the color configuration after generations, without any computation, by merely shifting each cell bits to the left (resp. right) if > 0 (resp. < 0), and then change the color of each cell if < 0. As in the five prior volumes, Vol. VI also contains simple recipes which are, in fact, general and original results from the abstract theory of 1-dimensional cellular automata. Indeed, both children and experts from cellular automata will find this volume to be as deep, refreshing, and entertaining, as the previous volumes.

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This penultimate volume contains numerous original, elegant, and surprising results in 1-dimensional cellular automata. Perhaps the most exciting, if not shocking, new result is the discovery that only 82 local rules, out of 256, suffice to predict the time evolution of any of the remaining 174 local rules from an arbitrary initial bit-string configuration. This is contrary to the well-known folklore that 256 local rules are necessary, leading to the new concept of quasi-global equivalence. Another surprising result is the introduction of a simple, yet explicit, infinite bit string called the super string S, which contains all random bit strings of finite length as sub-strings. As an illustration of the mathematical subtlety of this amazing discrete testing signal, the super string S is used to prove mathematically, in a trivial and transparent way, that rule 170 is as chaotic as a coin toss. Yet another unexpected new result, among many others, is the derivation of an explicit basin tree generation formula which provides an analytical relationship between the basin trees of globally-equivalent local rules. This formula allows the symbolic, rather than numerical, generation of the time evolution of any local rule corresponding to any initial bit-string configuration, from one of the 88 globally-equivalent local rules. But perhaps the most provocative idea is the proposal for adopting rule 137, over its three globally-equivalent siblings, including the heretofore more well-known rule 110, as the prototypical universal Turing machine.

(source: Nielsen Book Data)