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Book
[xvii], 287 pages ; 24 cm
  • Opening
  • Access
  • Copyright
  • Associations
  • Economics
  • Cooperative
  • Development
  • Public
  • Politics - Rights
  • Reading
  • indexing
  • History
  • Appendixes. A. Ten flavors of open access
  • B. Scholarly association budgets
  • C. Journal management economics
  • D. An Open access cooperative.
Medical Library (Lane)
Book
xv, 287 p. ; 24 cm.
An argument for extending the circulation of knowledge with new publishing technologies considers scholarly, economic, philosophical, and practical issues. Questions about access to scholarship go back farther than recent debates over subscription prices, rights, and electronic archives suggest. The great libraries of the past - from the fabled collection at Alexandria to the early public libraries of nineteenth-century America - stood as arguments for increasing access. In The Access Principle, John Willinsky describes the latest chapter in this ongoing story - online open access publishing by scholarly journals - and makes a case for open access as a public good. A commitment to scholarly work, writes Willinsky, carries with it a responsibility to circulate that work as widely as possible: this is the access principle. In the digital age, that responsibility includes exploring new publishing technologies and economic models to improve access to scholarly work. Wide circulation adds value to published work; it is a significant aspect of its claim to be knowledge. The right to know and the right to be known are inextricably mixed. Open access, argues Willinsky, can benefit both a researcher-author working the best-equipped lab at a leading research university and a teacher struggling to find resources in an impoverished high school. Willinsky describes different types of access - the New England Journal of Medicine, for example, grants open access to issues six months after initial publication, and First Monday forgoes a print edition and makes its contents immediately accessible at no cost. He discusses the contradictions of copyright law, the reading of research, and the economic viability of open access. He also considers broader themes of public access to knowledge, human rights issues, lessons from publishing history, and "epistemological vanities." The debate over open access, writes Willinsky, raises crucial questions about the place of scholarly work in a larger world - and about the future of knowledge.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780262232425 20160528
Questions about access to scholarship go back farther than recent debates over subscription prices, rights, and electronic archives suggest. The great libraries of the past - from the fabled collection at Alexandria to the early public libraries of nineteenth-century America - stood as arguments for increasing access. In "The Access Principle", John Willinsky describes the latest chapter in this ongoing story - online open access publishing by scholarly journals - and makes a case for open access as a public good. A commitment to scholarly work, writes Willinsky, carries with it a responsibility to circulate that work as widely as possible: this is the access principle. In the digital age, that responsibility includes exploring new publishing technologies and economic models to improve access to scholarly work. The right to know and the right to be known are inextricably mixed. Open access, argues Willinsky, can benefit both a researcher-author working at the best-equipped lab at a leading research university and a teacher struggling to find resources in an impoverished high school.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780262512664 20160528
Green Library, Education Library (Cubberley)
Book
ix, 252 p. ; 24 cm.
In this text, John Willinsky uses modern social issues and historical precedents to demonstrate that the social sciences can and should contribute far more to public knowledge than they have in the past. We have the technologies, Willinksy demonstrates, and need only the determination to create a public resource out of social research that can extend democratic participation and self-determination, as well as improve research's focus and public support. The book offers examples of why and how this is not only possible but necessary, in the face of knowledge-based economies and a withering public sector.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780415926515 20160527
Green Library
Book
210 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Green Library
Book
x, 304 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Education Library (Cubberley)
Book
viii, 258 p. ; 25 cm.
Challenging the authority of the "Oxford English Dictionary", this study reveals many of the dictionary's inherent prejudices and questions the assumptions behind its continuous revision. It describes how judgemental the task of editing a major dictionary can be.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780691037196 20160528
Law Library (Crown)
Book
258 p.
Challenging the authority of the "Oxford English Dictionary", this study reveals many of the dictionary's inherent prejudices and questions the assumptions behind its continuous revision. It describes how judgemental the task of editing a major dictionary can be.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780691037196 20160528
SAL3 (off-campus storage)
Book
xiii, 224 pages ; 24 cm.
In examining how literature is read and interpreted - in actual classrooms - through the lenses of Matthew Arnold, F.R.Leavis, Louise Rosenblatt and Northrop Frye, Dr Willinsky finds that their influence has failed to create "the sort of articulate, outspoken literacy in students that might extend the democratic basis of community and state, and that would give students a greater stake in a literate culture". In fact, the potential of these critics' power - to foster a more diverse literacy that could encompass not only the acknowledged great works of "Shakespeare and Co", but also the words of lyricists, journalists, and legislators - remains largely unfulfilled. More than a book about better teaching methods, this volume speaks to a broader constituency that has grown deeply concerned about where the schools have gone awry. By addressing the crucial but often overlooked interplay between literary criticism and public education, it offers readers a chapter of intellectual history which students continue to encounter on a daily basis and which shapes the state of literacy in ways that have rarely been acknowledged. Its original thesis should be of interest to English teachers and professors, teacher educators, reading and curriculum specialists, and language and literacy professionals and researchers.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780807731093 20160618
Education Library (Cubberley)
Book
xix, 275 p. ; 23 cm.
  • Table of Contents and Chapter Abstracts 1: The New Literacy 2: Finding the Voice of the Writer 3: The Reader Forms the Text 4: The Schooling of Literacy Theory 5: The History and Hopes of a Popular Literacy 6: The Roots of this Curriculum in Romanticism 7: The Romance and Dilemma of Expression 8: The Politics and Promsie of an Assertive Literacy 9: The Realization of the Children's Voices.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780415900553 20160527
The New Literacy movement in North America and Britain, covering every stage of education from primary school to higher education, aims to go beyond the idea of functional literacy to make reading a powerful weapon by means of which students can take control of their world socially and politically. John Willinsky's book assesses the effectiveness of the various programmes which the movement has spawned. It assesses the practical effectiveness of their efforts to foster a new level of literate engagement among students who may previously have felt disadvantaged in this area and to create a less authoritarian workplace in which to learn about and practice the language. At the same time it draws out the common philosophy which links these programmes together. This will be an inspirational as well as an informative text for all who are involved in the creation of a truly literate society.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780415900553 20160527
Education Library (Cubberley)
Book
xviii, 163 p. ; 23 cm.
SAL3 (off-campus storage)
Book
xviii, 163 p. ; 23 cm.
SAL3 (off-campus storage)
Book
xiv, 298 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
The contributors to this collection survey key issues of gender equity in education theory and the curriculum, and also consider the inherently gendered nature of knowledge. They call for a radical change in people's view of schooling and make suggestions for the way ahead.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780807734018 20160527
SAL3 (off-campus storage)
Book
1 online resource.
This two-part mixed methods study applies a dual processing model to explore the effects of digitally mediated empathy interventions on bias against marginalized groups, justice sensitivity, and helping behavior. Previous findings in the empathy literature suggest that while affective and cognitive empathy may be utilized to alter someone's perception of a marginalized group in a beneficial manner, the complex relationship between an individual and the technology they use may modify these effects and render previous findings incomplete. Results revealed that prompting affective or cognitive empathy in response to video stimuli did not elicit positive perspective-taking or decrease bias against these groups. For scales of homophobia that experienced significant interaction effects, the distraction and cued comment condition had the least amount of bias. Similarly, for the illegal alien scale, the distraction condition produced the least biased results. Findings from the justice sensitivity scales show that the empathy condition increased personal justice sensitivity, while those in the distraction condition experienced comparatively higher levels of "other-oriented" concern. These findings suggest that instead of eliciting positive feelings about the marginalized groups, the empathy-specific prompts activated biases against the individual. Additional findings for the effects on helping behavior suggest a more nuanced outcome that does not correlate with outcomes expected from previous psychological research. All of the results suggest that digitally mediated video stimuli designed to elicit empathy for marginalized groups may have the opposite effect due to the complex nature of the interaction between online media and culture.
Book
1 online resource.
Since 1939, 46 eddies, or fictional movies about primary or secondary schooling that foreground a teacher, have been released in the United States. From the 1950s through the 1990s, eddies often featured two interconnected and dominant tropes: the separation of home and school, and a "superteacher, " or a dedicated educator who uses unconventional teaching methods. However, many of the eddies made after 2000 blur or wholly erase the boundary between home and school, and nearly half of the 15 eddies made after 2000 feature unsavory or morally ambiguous teacher protagonists. This dissertation explores the contexts surrounding the genre's shift in tropes, and asserts that changes in eddies coincide with broader changes within the film industry, as well as with changes in educational policy and rhetoric. Specifically, generic changes in eddies coincide with the rise of the comic book film in the early 2000s, and President Bill Clinton's 1994 Goals 2000: Educate America Act, through which the Clinton administration framed education reform as a systemic problem requiring federal interventions and gained the public's support for federally led reforms. By the early 2000s, caped crusaders had begun proving lucrative at the box office, and the federal government had gained unprecedented traction in schools. Concurrently, the cinematic teacher--with no mask, no cape, and no federal authority—was increasingly depicted as a drug addict, a coward, or a cheater who brought the dysfunction of her home life into the classroom.
Special Collections
Book
1 online resource.
Introduction: Through funding agency and publisher policies, an increasing proportion of biomedical literature is being made open access, notably through the NIH Public Access Policy. Such an increase in access raises questions about the awareness and potential utilization of this literature by those working in health fields, notably physicians. In particular, this dissertation asks, what use, if any, will physicians make of biomedical research when offered relatively full access. The answer provides an opportunity to anticipate how full open access, though an ideal, might affect physician use of and perceptions about journal articles in patient care. Methods: A sample of physicians (N=336) licensed in the U.S. were provided with relatively complete access to the research literature indexed in PubMed, as well as access to the research summary service UpToDate, for up to one year, with their usage monitored through the tracking of data logs. The physicians, randomly assigned to two groups (n=168 each), also participated in a one-month trial of limited access. Upon completion of the online component of the study, semi-structured phone interviews, approximately 30 to 60 minutes in length, were conducted with 38 physicians about their priorities and use of journal articles in clinical, research, and other professional practices, as well as their awareness of the NIH Public Access Policy. Interview responses were analyzed both in their own right, as well as in conjunction with the data collected through the portal, with participant IDs facilitating the matching of each interview with the corresponding usage information from the portal. In particular, article clusters — instances when a participant viewed journal articles three times within a seven-day period — were generated from the participants' log files, first in aggregate (N=336) and then in greater detail for 38 physicians who were interviewed. Among those 38 with at least one article cluster (n=24), seven were considered more closely in terms of specific articles viewed. Results: The study found that physicians' research interests were not satisfied by article abstracts alone nor by a clinical summary service such as UpToDate. On average, a third of the physicians viewed research a little more frequently than once a week, with those who graduated prior to 1990 viewing significantly more articles than those with a more recent graduation date. Those articles were published since the 2008 adoption of the NIH Public Access Policy, as well as prior to 2008 and during the maximum 12-month embargo period. A portion of the articles in each period was already open access, but complete access encouraged a viewing of more research articles. Though this study began more than six years after the adoption of the NIH Policy in April 2008, the majority of physicians had never heard of the policy and its potential relevance in meeting their research needs. Conclusion: While physician use of research is considerable, it is unlikely that that publishers and institutions would be faced with widespread article use if research were more freely available. However, based on physician use of research, as seen through article clusters in web logs and heard through interviews from this study, physicians derive value from viewing research, a benefit often passed onto their patients and, more generally, society. When allowed complete access to research, they, in fact, viewed more research. This should bode well for the future of health care for two reasons: (1) physicians reported their use and sharing of research to be crucial in their care of patients and (2) more and more articles are being made open access through initiatives such as the NIH Public Access Policy.
Special Collections
Book
1 online resource.
This dissertation uses social network analytical techniques to illuminate questions of central interest to higher education scholars. In it, I investigate the role that the university, as a formal organization, plays in knowledge creation, with particular focus on interdisciplinary research, asking how interdisciplinary research centers shape the lives of faculty and the organizational form of the university. The first chapter reviews the existing literature applying social network analysis in higher education, and then maps the network of co-citations among papers in this domain, providing a picture of where links are strongest and where gaps remain. Chapters 2 and 3 examine the interplay between the network of collaborative relations among faculty members and the organizational form of the university, touching on questions of university governance, faculty productivity, and knowledge creation. These chapters examine how interdisciplinary centers bring colleagues together in new collaborations, how they position faculty members within the social structure of the university, and whether they influence the content of the work scholars produce. Social network analysis (SNA), I argue, provides unique traction on these issues. Through this dissertation, I explore the potential of SNA methods to deepen our understanding of higher education, of knowledge production and exchange, and of the university as a formal organization.
Special Collections
Book
1 online resource.
This dissertation investigates a project in which high school students research a significant and sensitive event in the history of their community and then create a series of articles about it for a community history website. The dissertation argues for the educational benefits associated with students producing work of public value. This concept is situated, first, with respect to previous project- and product-oriented curricular theories and, second, through the development of the local high school program within which this work was conducted. The dissertation then narrates the process by which students created these entries and reports on the various forms of educational value it created, as perceived by the students themselves and members of the public. The researcher worked as a participant-observer, guiding the students throughout the two-month long project while collecting field notes and artifacts. He interviewed the 19 participating students at the beginning and end of the project and then interviewed 4 historians and 7 other members of the public as they examined the students' finished work. All groups saw significant value in the project, both in the development of students' historical understanding and in the creation of a publicly accessible historical resource for the community and beyond.
Special Collections
Book
1 online resource.
Abstract Early research often took creativity as an individual trait tied to personality and cognitive abilities. The practical goal was to identify creative people. More recently, research has begun to examine how training and social arrangements may improve creativity. In this case, the practical goal is to develop interventions and social architectures that foster creativity. The current research takes a different approach. It examines whether it is possible to temporarily improve creativity through simple actions. The goal is to develop simple prescriptions that can help anyone be more creative when needed. The simple prescription is to take a walk outside. One widely adopted definition of creativity is that it involves the production of appropriate novelty. Creative ideas are not only unusual compared to the backdrop of other average ideas, they are also appropriate to the context or topic. The achievement of creativity, both in small, everyday moments and on a grand scale, has many facets and processes. One key component of creativity is the initial generation of appropriate novel ideas, which may be subsequently refined and built upon. The current research adapts two widely accepted creativity tasks that focus on this aspect of creativity. Guilford's Alternate Uses asks people to generate ways to use objects that differ from their original intended use. It is a measure of flexibility and divergent thinking. Barron's Symbolic Equivalence Test asks people to generate analogies to base prompts. It is a measure of structured ideation and originality. In both cases, people receive a set of prompts, and they produce multiple ideas within a fixed time period. The current research employs multiple studies to examine the effects of two simple factors on each of the creativity tests. One factor is walking. No prior research has examined whether creativity increases while people are walking. The research on exercise physiology has found a variety of cognitive and emotional effects associated with different levels of exercise. Walking has a different set of effects compared to aerobic exercise. The effects can be further differentiated by whether they are measured during exercise or after. Most research on walking has found that it can compete with some cognitive tasks, which implies that it draws upon common resources. Some of these studies use cognitive tasks that require a high degree of concentration. Creativity, however, may depend on freeing oneself from an over-focus on one set of ideas. Exercise is known to improve mood and decrease rumination, which may further free people to generate novel ideas. The second factor is the dynamic flow of outdoor stimulation. For intense concentration that draws heavily upon working memory, a non-stimulating environment may be optimal, because it does not lead to distraction. Generating initial ideas, however, may be better served by an environment of moderately changing stimulation that can spark new trains of thought. Several studies have also shown that the outdoors can have a restorative effect and elevate mood, which in turn may lead people towards more open ideation. The current research examines whether moving through an outdoor space influences creative ideation. The studies do not isolate the benefits of moving outside from sitting outside or moving through a diverse-stimuli indoor space such as a shopping mall. Instead they make an initial demonstration that moving through the outdoors can improve creativity. Three studies compared self-propelled movement versus sitting. Two of the studies also compared moving through the outdoors versus sitting in an indoor space. Across the studies, the double main effects of (a) walking and (b) moving through an outdoor space where replicated, once with the Alternate Uses Test and once with the Symbolic Equivalence Test. The studies also provided a hint that walking through the outdoors has a synergistic effect that exceeds the effect of both factors added together. Experiment 1 compared adults who sat inside versus walked outside while completing an oral administration of the Alternate Uses test. Each participant completed two sessions. Half of the participants completed the first session sitting indoors, while the other half completed the first session walking outdoors. Then, half of each group switched contexts. This created the four possible combinations of In-In, In-Out, Out-In, and Out-Out. When people walked outside, they generated significantly more appropriate and novel responses. Moreover, those participants who sat inside after walking outdoors continued to exhibit a high level of creativity, which suggests a residue of physical activity. Additionally, when walking outside, all participants generated significantly more uses involving the outdoor context, which were also more novel within the complete set of participant responses. This indicates that the outdoor stimulation had a direct effect on their creative output. Experiment 2 replicated the effect with Barron's Symbolic Equivalence test, which was adapted to an oral administration amenable to walking. In this study, participants completed one of four conditions while generating symbolic equivalents: sit inside, walk on a treadmill inside, being wheeled outside in a wheel chair, or walk outside. This design separated self-propelled movement from a moving, outdoor context. As in Experiment 1, walking had a main effect. It led to more novel, well-structured ideas, indoors or out. There was also a main effect of outdoor movement on the novelty of the analogies, and as before, people outside generated more analogies that referenced outdoor content. Experiment 3 returned to the Alternate Uses to test whether walking has a main effect independent of the outdoor context. People either walked on a treadmill indoors or they sat indoors while completing the task. The study also enlisted participants drawn from a community college, whereas the prior studies enlisted participants from a highly selective private university. Thus, this experiment tested the generalization of walking found in Experiment 2 using a different population and a different measure of creativity. Participants who walked on the treadmill produced more appropriate uses. Additionally, participants who walked on the treadmill and then sat down in the same room to complete the second half of the Alternate Uses test showed strong positive residual effects as in Experiment 1. The finding that walking and flowing outdoor stimulation improve creativity independently and jointly contributes to several literatures. It is a first demonstration for the creativity literature, and it is a first demonstration relevant to the exercise literature concerned with cognitive outcomes. It is also relevant to education. Many people hope that education can improve people's creativity. The results demonstrate a simple way that education can help do this. Teach people that if they walk outside, it will help them be more creative. They will generate more novel ideas, and those ideas will be better structured than if they simply sit inside.
Special Collections
Book
xiv, 310 p.
Book
1 online resource.
Academic institutions invest in interdisciplinary research centers to promote innovative knowledge creation. As prior work on these research efforts has examined either established interdisciplinary collaborations or completed intellectual products, we have a limited understanding of how interdisciplinary research centers emerge and develop over time. This longitudinal ethnographic study on a new Transdisciplinary Premature Birth Research Center sheds light on the early stages of knowledge integration and their impact on the outcomes of interdisciplinary science. The Center's research efforts consisted of four heterogeneous teams: Placental Function, Pattern Recognition, Bioinformatics, and Microbiome. In order to promote knowledge integration among the scientists, the Center organized research group meetings for the different projects. These meetings occurred at various knowledge boundaries that created conditions for the emergence of boundary struggles. Across the four projects, boundaries were established around different objects of contention. I define them as either abstract or concrete scientific objects that demonstrate the points where the scholars' perspectives begin to differ and create boundary struggles in meeting discussions. Whereas in the Placental Function, Pattern Recognition, and Bioinformatics meetings the objects of contention hindered knowledge integration efforts over time, in the Microbiome meetings the actors successfully integrated their varied expertise around a shared goal. I suggest this outcome related to the concrete goal and the fact that the meeting participants navigated differences in their cross-functional roles, rather than disciplinary backgrounds. The different objects of contention and their long-term impact on scientific work shine light on how difficult interdisciplinary collaboration actually is.

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