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Book
222 pages ; 24 cm
  • A system without a plan
  • Elements of the American model of higher education
  • Unpromising roots
  • The ragtag college system in the nineteenth century
  • Adding the pinnacle and keeping the base
  • The graduate school crowns the system, 1880
  • 1910
  • Mutual subversion
  • The liberal and the professional
  • Balancing access and advantage
  • Private advantage, public impact
  • Learning to love the bomb
  • America's brief cold war fling with the university as a public good
  • Upstairs, downstairs
  • Relations between the tiers of the system
  • A perfect mess.
Read the news about America's colleges and universities rising student debt, affirmative action debates, and conflicts between faculty and administrators and it's clear that higher education in this country is a total mess. But as David F. Labaree reminds us in this book, it's always been that way. And that's exactly why it has become the most successful and sought-after source of learning in the world. Detailing American higher education's unusual struggle for survival in a free market that never guaranteed its place in society a fact that seemed to doom it in its early days in the nineteenth century he tells a lively story of the entrepreneurial spirit that drove American higher education to become the best. And the best it is: today America's universities and colleges produce the most scholarship, earn the most Nobel prizes, hold the largest endowments, and attract the most esteemed students and scholars from around the world. But this was not an inevitability. Weakly funded by the state, American schools in their early years had to rely on student tuition and alumni donations in order to survive. This gave them tremendous autonomy to seek out sources of financial support and pursue unconventional opportunities to ensure their success. As Labaree shows, by striving as much as possible to meet social needs and fulfill individual ambitions, they developed a broad base of political and financial support that, grounded by large undergraduate programs, allowed for the most cutting-edge research and advanced graduate study ever conducted. As a result, American higher education eventually managed to combine a unique mix of the populist, the practical, and the elite in a single complex system. The answers to today's problems in higher education are not easy, but as this book shows, they shouldn't be: no single person or institution can determine higher education's future. It is something that faculty, administrators, and students adapting to society's needs will determine together, just as they have always done.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780226250441 20170522
Education Library (Cubberley)
Book
304 p. ; 22 cm.
  • From citizens to consumers
  • Founding the American school system
  • The progressive effort to reshape the system
  • Organizational resistance to reform
  • Classroom resistance to reform
  • Failing to solve social problems
  • The limits of school learning
  • Living with the school syndrome.
What do we really want from schools? Only everything, in all its contradictions. Most of all, we want access and opportunity for all children - but all possible advantages for our own. So argues historian David Labaree in this provocative look at the way 'this archetype of dysfunction works so well at what we want it to do even as it evades what we explicitly ask it to do'. Ever since the common school movement of the nineteenth century, mass schooling has been seen as an essential solution to great social problems. Yet as wave after wave of reform movements have shown, schools are extremely difficult to change. Labaree shows how the very organization of the locally controlled, administratively limited school system makes reform difficult. At the same time, he argues, the choices of educational consumers have always overwhelmed top-down efforts at school reform. Individual families seek to use schools for their own purposes - to pursue social opportunity, if they need it, and to preserve social advantage, if they have it. In principle, we want the best for all children. In practice, we want the best for our own. Provocative, unflinching, wry, "Someone Has to Fail" looks at the way that unintended consequences of consumer choices have created an extraordinarily resilient educational system, perpetually expanding, perpetually unequal, constantly being reformed, and never changing much.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780674050686 20160604
Education Library (Cubberley)
EDUC-220D-01, HISTORY-258E-01
Book
vii, 184 p. ; 24 cm.
  • Introduction: "Getting It Wrong" Chapter 1: "Academic Excellence in an Early U.S. High School." Chapter 2: "Curriculum, Credentials, and the Middle Class: A Case Study of a Nineteenth Century High School." Chapter 3: "Power, knowledge, and the science of teaching: A genealogy of teacher professionalization Chapter 4: "Doing Good, Doing Science: The Holmes Group Reports and the Rhetorics of Educational Reform" Chapter 5: "From Comprehensive High School to Community College: Politics, Markets, and the Evolution of Educational Opportunity. Chapter 6: "Public Goods, Private Goods: The American Struggle over Educational Goals" Chapter 7: "The Chronic Failure of Curriculum Reform" Chapter 8: "Resisting Educational Standards." . Chapter 9: "The Trouble with Ed Schools" Chapter 10: "On the Nature of Teaching and Teacher Education: Difficult Practices that Look Easy" Chapter 11: "Educational Researchers: Living with a Lesser Form of Knowledge" Chapter 12: "Progressivism, Schools, and Schools of Education: An American Romance" Chapter 13: "No Exit: Public Education as an Inescapably Public Good".
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780415369947 20160527
In the "World Library of Educationalists" series, international experts compile career-long collections of what they judge to be their finest pieces - extracts from books, key articles, salient research findings, major theoretical and practical contributions - so the world can read them in a single manageable volume. Readers will be able to follow the themes and strands and see how their work contributes to the development of the field. David F. Labaree has spent the last twenty years researching, thinking and writing about some of the key and enduring issues in the History of Education and in Education Policy and Politics. In this book, David Labaree brings together twelve of his key writings in one place. Starting with a specially written introduction, 'Getting It Wrong', which gives an ironic overview at how the ideas in his work evolved over time and throws light on the process of scholarly production, the chapters cover such topics as: the structure of the educational system; conflicting purposes of education; the core problems of practice in teaching and teacher education; and, barriers to curriculum reform. This work is an ideal resource for anyone wanting to know more about the development of schools and schooling and David Labaree's contribution to these important fields.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780415369947 20160527
Education Library (Cubberley)
Book
x, 245 p. ; 25 cm.
  • Introduction : the lowly status of the ed school
  • Teacher ed in the past : the roots of its lowly status
  • Teacher ed in the present : the peculiar problems of preparing teachers
  • The peculiar problems of doing educational research
  • The peculiar problems of preparing educational researchers
  • Status dilemmas of education professors
  • The ed school's romance with progressivism
  • The trouble with ed schools : little harm, little help.
American schools of education get little respect. They are portrayed as intellectual wastelands, as impractical and irrelevant, as the root cause of bad teaching and inadequate learning. In this book a sociologist and historian of education examines the historical developments and contemporary factors that have resulted in the unenviable status of ed schools, offering valuable insights into the problems of these beleaguered institutions. David F. Labaree explains how the poor reputation of the ed school has had important repercussions, shaping the quality of its programmes, its recruitment, and the public response to the knowledge it offers. He notes the special problems faced by ed schools as they prepare teachers and produce research and researchers. And he looks at the consequences of the ed school's attachment to educational progressivism. Throughout these discussions, Labaree maintains an ambivalent position about education schools, admiring their dedication and critiquing their mediocrity, their romantic rhetoric, and their compliant attitudes.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780300103502 20160528
Education Library (Cubberley)
Book
x, 323 p. ; 25 cm.
This text argues that the connection between schooling and social mobility may be doing more harm than good, for the pursuit of educational credentials has come to take precedence over the acquisition of knowledge.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780300069938 20160527
Education Library (Cubberley)
Book
xiv, 208 p. ; 25 cm.
Education Library (Cubberley)
Book
xiv, 575 leaves.
SAL3 (off-campus storage)
Book
41 leaves.
Education Library (Cubberley)
Book
48 leaves.
Education Library (Cubberley)
Book
iv, 50 leaves.
Education Library (Cubberley)
Book
v, 102 leaves.
Education Library (Cubberley)
Book
xv, 312 p. ; 24 cm.
This book is a comparative history that explores the social, cultural, and political formation of the modern nation through the construction of public schooling. It asks how modern school systems arose in a variety of different republics and non-republics across four continents during the period from the late eighteenth century to the early twentieth century. The authors begin with the republican preoccupation with civic virtue - the need to overcome self-interest in order to take up the common interest - which requires a form of education that can produce individuals who are capable of self-guided rational action for the public good. They then ask how these educational preoccupations led to the emergence of modern school systems in a disparate array of national contexts, even those that were not republican. By examining historical changes in republicanism across time and space, the authors explore central epistemologies that connect the modern individual to community and citizenship through the medium of schooling. Ideas of the individual were reformulated in the nineteenth century in reaction to new ideas about justice, social order, and progress, and the organization and pedagogy of the school turned these changes into a way to transform the self into the citizen.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780415889001 20160605
Education Library (Cubberley)
Book
xii, 190 leaves, bound.
SAL3 (off-campus storage), Special Collections
Book
iii, 76 leaves, bound.
Education Library (Cubberley)
Book
1 online resource.
Since 1939, 46 eddies, or fictional movies about primary or secondary schooling that foreground a teacher, have been released in the United States. From the 1950s through the 1990s, eddies often featured two interconnected and dominant tropes: the separation of home and school, and a "superteacher, " or a dedicated educator who uses unconventional teaching methods. However, many of the eddies made after 2000 blur or wholly erase the boundary between home and school, and nearly half of the 15 eddies made after 2000 feature unsavory or morally ambiguous teacher protagonists. This dissertation explores the contexts surrounding the genre's shift in tropes, and asserts that changes in eddies coincide with broader changes within the film industry, as well as with changes in educational policy and rhetoric. Specifically, generic changes in eddies coincide with the rise of the comic book film in the early 2000s, and President Bill Clinton's 1994 Goals 2000: Educate America Act, through which the Clinton administration framed education reform as a systemic problem requiring federal interventions and gained the public's support for federally led reforms. By the early 2000s, caped crusaders had begun proving lucrative at the box office, and the federal government had gained unprecedented traction in schools. Concurrently, the cinematic teacher--with no mask, no cape, and no federal authority—was increasingly depicted as a drug addict, a coward, or a cheater who brought the dysfunction of her home life into the classroom.
Special Collections
Book
1 online resource.
Open-mindedness has been touted by philosophers as a vital characteristic of the educated mind and by educational scholars as an important component of critical thinking. This dissertation investigates open-mindedness and its educational significance. It aims to establish that open-mindedness is fundamental to the pursuit of knowledge and understanding, that it contributes to the preparation of individuals for citizenship and for pursuit of the good life, and that teachers and systems of education that undermine open-mindedness in their students are guilty of indoctrination. My consideration of open-mindedness and its educational significance comprises three papers. The first paper answers the question: what is open-mindedness? With this definition of open-mindedness in hand, the second paper considers the value of open-mindedness in greater depth through an analysis of its relationship to the liberal democratic value of autonomy. The third paper considers the demands on educators to support the development of open-mindedness through an investigation of indoctrination -- a type of bad teaching that produces or reinforces closed-mindedness. Together these three papers develop a conception of open-mindedness, explore the role of open-mindedness in autonomy and citizenship education, and consider the responsibility of educators to promote this virtue.
Special Collections
Book
1 online resource.
The three articles of this dissertation explore how the past is represented in history classrooms in Northern Ireland, and the historical understandings students develop as a result. Taken together, these articles help us to better understand the complicated position that narrative holds in the history classroom. When history first appeared on the school timetable in the UK, as elsewhere, its purpose was to communicate a shared national story to new generations. In recent decades, the centrality of the nation in historiography and history education came under attack, both from historians who wrote outside the national mode, and from educationists who argued for greater attention in schools to history as a form of knowledge rather than a body of content. These shifts appear in the changing content and structure of history textbooks in Northern Ireland, which abandon traditional narrative accounts of history in favor of inquiries into significant and controversial events. Students, for their part, also struggle to construct historical accounts that link events together into a coherent whole, and when they do often rely on sectarian templates encountered outside the school. Young people in Northern Ireland encounter multiple and competing versions of the national past. The challenge for history instruction is to provide students with the tools to adjudicate among these competing claims, and the skills to construct coherent and persuasive narratives that explain historical change.
Special Collections
Book
1 online resource.
This study attempts to place the current standards-based accountability movement in historical perspective by understanding it as the latest attempt in a century of effort to define the appropriate outcomes of public education. Approaching this topic from the vantage point of legal history, I examine three specific cases—compulsory school laws in the 19th century, the creation of the GED in the 1940s, and the minimum-competency testing movement of the 1970s—to develop an argument about the cyclical quality of the development, enforcement, and outcomes of the continual search for workable education standards. Drawing on evidence from a wide variety of sources including archival materials, legal records, and print media, I argue that this cycle is driven by moments of crisis brought about by the uncertainty inherent in mass public education and disagreements about the purpose of schooling. These crises are followed by a search for a new standard that can bring certainty and stability to the task of enforcing minimum standards. The solutions that are forged in these moments—created through legislative action or judicial ruling—achieve the necessary certainty at the price of narrowing the goals of schooling. Each of the minimum standards considered in this study—compulsory schooling laws; the GED; and exit examinations—were a byproduct of the complexity of a mass public education system and the tensions between the public and private value of schooling. Even as public schools produced advantage for individual students, the public at large had to be reassured that schools were also producing at least minimally educated citizens. The standards under examination in this dissertation were each a necessary part of convincing the public that schools were upholding their presumed responsibilities for producing the socially beneficial aspects of schooling. In the late nineteenth century, compulsory schooling laws were an important part of reassuring the public that all children received the benefit of the education system that had been provided at great public expense. After World War II, the GED allowed colleges and employers to have confidence that returning veterans had 'earned' their diplomas through a rigorous examination rather than as a handout for their military service. During the 1970's the implementation of minimum competency testing allayed fears that the quality of schools was slipping and that diplomas were too frequently given for "time served" rather than knowledge learned. The need to develop metrics that could be easily measured and monitored from afar had a significant impact on each of the cases examined in this study: it led judges in the late 19th century to define the purpose of compulsory schooling as requiring a number of days of attendance rather than an amount of learning; it convinced policymakers in the 1940s to accept a GED that measured only the schooling outcomes that were easily captured by a standardized test; and it allowed judges to validate policies that made diplomas contingent on passing "exit exams" on the assumption tests could serve as the sole measure of "minimum competence" and were more reliable than "subjective" teacher grades. In all three instances, the adopted measure did not address subjective skills, like reasoning, synthesizing, formulating conclusions, but rather strictly objective, fact-based knowledge that could be measured and seen through scores on multiple choice tests. Examining this history, then, provides insights into our ongoing effort to shore up confidence in public schooling through the development and enforcement of minimum standards. In fulfilling the effort to establish both an educational standard and a legal standard of enforcement, the legislators and judges had to find a balance between confronting the messy realities of the education process and providing a credible standard that could be reliably enforced. These were the sacrifices required to achieve certain standards. Understanding the trade-offs inherent in these kinds of efforts is crucial, not only to understanding the historical development of public education, but also for understanding the full implications of contemporary policy that seeks to expand greatly the role of standards and tests in American education.
Special Collections
Book
1 online resource.
Abstract The Illusion of Control examines the effects of governance structures within a statewide system of higher education, with a particular focus upon the California Community College (CCC) system, to explore whether differences in system or state governance structures can be argued to affect the standardization, adoption and enforcement of policies aimed at furthering student persistence and degree attainment. This research analysis seeks to use the uniformity of system-wide institutional policy adoption as a frame for illuminating and comparing CCC system governance to the governance of the public community college system in Florida, and to the CCC's sister systems of higher education the California State University and University of California systems. Specifically, this dissertation seeks to ask: 1) What effect does state higher education governance structure have upon individual postsecondary institutional behaviors regarding policy adoption and enforcement? 2) Are there organizational or state governance structure characteristics that differentiate the CCC system from statewide systems of community colleges in Florida or from the CSU or UC systems? 3) Do emergent differences in state level postsecondary governance structures measurably impact statewide institutional adoption of selected policy metrics within these states? 4) If certain state or system-wide postsecondary governance structures lend themselves to more consistent system-wide adoption of policy, what factor(s) contribute to the ability or inability to implement such governance structures? 5) Within the CCC system, who are the actors tasked with governance, how and why do they encourage or discourage adoption of differing governance structures/forms, and how do these actions manifest themselves in terms of uniformity of policy adoption? 6) What are the effects of these actions upon CCC students and California taxpayers? How might any change to the existing system come about? The primary research method used is a qualitative comparative analysis, utilizing the differences in governance structure between the CCC system and those of UC, CSU and the State of Florida's public community college system as the independent variable and the uniform adoption of a specific set of policies as the dependent variable. Emergent differences in governance structures that lend themselves towards increased levels of institutional adoption of a specific set of policies are illuminated, allowing further explanation of the origins and causes of these differences. Included in this research process is a review of existing taxonomies for public higher education governance and the forwarding of a new bi-level taxonomy that better captures the complexities of state public postsecondary systems. The policy set used for this analysis includes policies regarding placement assessment, academic advising, inter-institutional course articulation, and common course numbering systems. While these policies are intended to increase student success and persistence in all populations of college attendees, the unique nature of student transfer from community college to four-year schools makes this policy set particularly important to community college students and institutions. The first section of this dissertation defines governance, describes its general form in higher education and situates it in American historical context. I then explore existing literature on the two primary levels of public higher educational governance, individual institutions and statewide postsecondary systems. A brief explanation of differing postsecondary institutional types and their origins is followed by a review of the literature regarding the effect of governance structures on postsecondary policy initiatives and an analysis of my first set of findings. I then provide a modified set of conceptual frameworks for defining governance structures and use those frameworks to examine the effects of state and system governance on my chosen set of policy metrics. The second section of this dissertation is focused upon a comparative analysis of the CCC system against both the UC and CSU systems, as well as the postsecondary system in Florida. This comparison uses the chosen conceptual frameworks for governance to compare the uniformity of policy adoption. I then explore the basis for any emergent differences and suggest how governance plays a role in their perpetuation. The final section of The Illusion of Control is a historical and political analysis focused upon CCC governance, its historical basis, the individuals and agentive entities that participate in governing at local, system and state levels, and the benefits/problems introduced by such governance. I follow with an exploration of strategies for encouraging or facilitating any perceived need for change in CCC system governance, and an exploration of the potential of disruptive technologies or educational delivery systems as catalysts for change.
Book
1 online resource.
'Disenchantment' has been a consistent trope in sociology since Weber's appropriation of the term nearly a century ago. In this work I argue that, in contrast to the standard modernization story, organizations have long been subject to countervailing forces other than that that of rationalization. This has been especially true in schools, institutions that exist at the intersection of the logics of bureaucracy, democracy and expressive youth cultures. In this dissertation I identify a uniquely contemporary organizational response to these tensions, one I associate with the notion of 're-enchantment.' I use this term to refer to reforms that identify emotional and intellectual alienation as the primary institutional problems to be overcome and find a solution in the reinvigoration of organizational practices with imagination, creativity, and collaboration. The result is a genre of reform that accepts the logic of standardized and rationalized outcomes but attempts to transform the process of achieving these goals by 're-enchanting' organizational experience with a sense of connectedness and creativity. In this dissertation I discuss small school reform generally, and a particular instance of it at Mill Town high specifically, as examples of organizational re-enchantment. More than just introducing new practices or structures, small school reform entails an effort to reshape the tactic and practical modes of coordination, what I call ways of being. These are social conventions that allow actors to coordinate with each other and their environment in a way that is grounded in a shared practical understanding of the proper ordering of people and things. In contrast to standard account that locate the barrier to change in the minds of organizational actors, utilizing a mixed-methods approach I show that much of the failure of the reform at Mill Town was not the result of beliefs, attitudes or values of teachers, but rather concerned the complexity of changing culturally disposed, and intersubjectively sustained, modes of coordination in the organization.
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