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Book
xv, 341 p. : ill ; 24 cm.
MP3: The Meaning of a Format recounts the hundred-year history of the world's most common format for recorded audio. Understanding the historical meaning of the MP3 format entails rethinking the place of digital technologies in the larger universe of twentieth-century communication history, from hearing research conducted by the telephone industry in the 1910s, through the mid-century development of perceptual coding (the technology underlying the MP3), to the format's promiscuous social life since the mid 1990s.MP3s are products of compression, a process that removes sounds unlikely to be heard from recordings. Although media history is often characterized as a progression toward greater definition, fidelity, and truthfulness, MP3: The Meaning of a Format illuminates the crucial role of compression in the development of modern media and sound culture. Taking the history of compression as his point of departure, Jonathan Sterne investigates the relationship between sound, silence, sense, and noise; the commodity status of recorded sound and the economic role of piracy; and the importance of standards in the governance of our emerging media culture. He demonstrates that formats, standards, and infrastructures - and the need for content to fit inside them - are every bit as central to communication as the boxes we call "media.".
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780822352877 20160609
Green Library, Music Library
HISTORY-105A-01, HISTORY-5A-01
Book
x, 247 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Today, women earn a relatively low percentage of computer science degrees and hold proportionately few technical computing jobs. Meanwhile, the stereotype of the male "computer geek" seems to be everywhere in popular culture. Few people know that women were a significant presence in the early decades of computing in both the United States and Britain. Indeed, programming in postwar years was considered woman's work (perhaps in contrast to the more manly task of building the computers themselves). In Recoding Gender, Janet Abbate explores the untold history of women in computer science and programming from the Second World War to the late twentieth century. Demonstrating how gender has shaped the culture of computing, she offers a valuable historical perspective on today's concerns over women's underrepresentation in the field. Abbate describes the experiences of women who worked with the earliest electronic digital computers: Colossus, the wartime codebreaking computer at Bletchley Park outside London, and the American ENIAC, developed to calculate ballistics. She examines postwar methods for recruiting programmers, and the 1960s redefinition of programming as the more masculine "software engineering." She describes the social and business innovations of two early software entrepreneurs, Elsie Shutt and Stephanie Shirley; and she examines the career paths of women in academic computer science. Abbate's account of the bold and creative strategies of women who loved computing work, excelled at it, and forged successful careers will provide inspiration for those working to change gendered computing culture.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780262018067 20160610
Green Library
HISTORY-105A-01, HISTORY-5A-01
Book
xiv, 361 p. : ill ; 24 cm.
  • List of Illustrations Acknowledgments Note on Transliteration Introduction Part I 1. The Eyes of Others 2. Farmers and Kings 3. The Paper Road 4. The Golden Mountain Gate Part II 5. Bodies Real and Virtual 6. Lost Worlds 7. The Mountain 8. Adventurers 9. The Book of the Earth Notes Bibliography Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780520269033 20160609
This exhilarating book interweaves the stories of two early twentieth-century botanists to explore the collaborative relationships each formed with Yunnan villagers in gathering botanical specimens from the borderlands between China, Tibet, and Burma. Erik Mueggler introduces Scottish botanist George Forrest, who employed Naxi adventurers in his fieldwork from 1906 until his death in 1932. We also meet American Joseph Francis Charles Rock, who, in 1924, undertook a dangerous expedition to Gansu and Tibet with the sons and nephews of Forrest's workers. Mueggler describes how the Naxi workers and their Western employers rendered the earth into specimens, notes, maps, diaries, letters, books, photographs, and ritual manuscripts. Drawing on an ancient metaphor of the earth as a book, Mueggler provides a sustained meditation on what can be copied, translated, and revised and what can be folded back into the earth.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780520269033 20160609
Green Library
HISTORY-105A-01, HISTORY-5A-01
Book
x, 320 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
This is a book about the computer revolution of the mid-twentieth century and the people who made it possible. Unlike most histories of computing, it is not a book about machines, inventors, or entrepreneurs. Instead, it tells the story of the vast but largely anonymous legions of computer specialists--programmers, systems analysts, and other software developers--who transformed the electronic computer from a scientific curiosity into the defining technology of the modern era. As the systems that they built became increasingly powerful and ubiquitous, these specialists became the focus of a series of critiques of the social and organizational impact of electronic computing. To many of their contemporaries, it seemed the "computer boys" were taking over, not just in the corporate setting, but also in government, politics, and society in general. In The Computer Boys Take Over, Nathan Ensmenger traces the rise to power of the computer expert in modern American society. His rich and nuanced portrayal of the men and women (a surprising number of the "computer boys" were, in fact, female) who built their careers around the novel technology of electronic computing explores issues of power, identity, and expertise that have only become more significant in our increasingly computerized society. In his recasting of the drama of the computer revolution through the eyes of its principle revolutionaries, Ensmenger reminds us that the computerization of modern society was not an inevitable process driven by impersonal technological or economic imperatives, but was rather a creative, contentious, and above all, fundamentally human development.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780262050937 20160604
Green Library
HISTORY-105A-01, HISTORY-5A-01
Book
x, 526 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
  • Psychiatry to cybernetics
  • Grey Walter: from electroshock to the psychedelic sixties
  • The tortoise and the brain
  • Tortoise ontology
  • Tortoises as not-brains
  • The social basis of cybernetics
  • Rodney Brooks and robotics
  • Cora and machina docilis
  • Cybernetics and madness
  • Strange performances
  • Flicker
  • Flicker and the sixties
  • Biofeedback and new music
  • Ross Ashby: psychiatry, synthetic brains, and cybernetics
  • The pathological brain
  • Ashby's hobby
  • The homeostat
  • The homeostat as ontological theater
  • The social basis of Ashby's cybernetics
  • Design for a brain
  • Dams
  • Madness revisited
  • Adaptation, war, and society
  • Cybernetics as a theory of everything
  • Cybernetics and epistemology
  • A new kind of science: Alexander, Kauffman, and Wolfram
  • Gregory Bateson and R. D. Laing: symmetry, psychiatry, and the sixties
  • Gregory Bateson
  • Schizophrenia and enlightenment
  • Therapy
  • As nomad
  • R. D. Laing
  • On therapy
  • Kingsley Hall
  • Archway
  • Coupled becomings, inner voyages, aftermath
  • Psychiatry and the sixties
  • Ontology, power, and revealing
  • Beyond the brain
  • Stafford Beer: from the cybernetic factory to tantric yoga
  • From operations research to cybernetics
  • Toward the cybernetic factory
  • Biological computing
  • Ontology and design
  • The social basis of Beer's cybernetics
  • The afterlife of biological computing
  • The viable system model
  • The VSM as ontology and epistemology
  • The VSM in practice
  • Chile: project cybersyn
  • The politics of the VSM
  • The political critique of cybernetics
  • On goals
  • The politics of interacting systems
  • Team syntegrity
  • Cybernetics and spirituality
  • Hylozoism
  • Tantrism
  • Brian Eno and new music
  • Gordon Pask: from chemical computers to adaptive archictecture
  • Musicolour
  • The history of musicolour
  • Musicolour and ontology
  • Ontology and aesthetics
  • The social basis of Pask's cybernetics
  • Training machines
  • Teaching machines
  • Chemical computers
  • Threads
  • New senses
  • The epistemology of cybernetic research
  • Cas, social science, and F-22s --The arts and the sixties
  • Cybernetic theater
  • Cybernetic serendipity
  • The social basis again
  • The fun palace
  • After the sixties: adaptive architecture
  • Sketches of another future
  • Themes from the history of cybernetics
  • Ontology
  • Design
  • Power
  • The arts
  • Selves
  • Spirituality
  • The sixties
  • Altered states
  • The social basis
  • Sketches of another future.
Cybernetics is often thought of as a grim military or industrial science of control. But as Andrew Pickering reveals in this surprising book, a much more lively and experimental strain of cybernetics can be traced from the 1940s to the present. "The Cybernetic Brain" explores a largely forgotten group of British thinkers, including Grey Walter, Ross Ashby, Gregory Bateson, R.D. Laing, Stafford Beer, and Gordon Pask, and their singular work in a dazzling array of fields. Psychiatry, engineering, management, politics, music, architecture, education, tantric yoga, the Beats, and the sixties counterculture all come into play as Pickering follows the history of cybernetics' impact on the world, from contemporary robotics and complexity theory to the Chilean economy under Salvador Allende. What underpins this fascinating history, Pickering argues, is a shared but unconventional vision of the world as ultimately unknowable, a place where genuine novelty is always emerging. And thus, Pickering suggests, the history of cybernetics provides us with an imaginative model of open-ended experimentation in stark opposition to the modern urge to achieve domination over nature and each other.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780226667904 20160604
Green Library
HISTORY-105A-01, HISTORY-5A-01
Book
xv, 397 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
  • Information management in comparative perspective
  • Note-taking as information management
  • Reference genres and their finding devices
  • Compilers, their motivations and methods
  • The impact of early printed reference books.
The flood of information brought to us by advancing technology is often accompanied by a distressing sense of 'information overload', yet this experience is not unique to modern times. In fact, says Ann Blair in this intriguing book, the invention of the printing press and the ensuing abundance of books provoked sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European scholars to register complaints very similar to our own. The author examines methods of information management in ancient and medieval Europe as well as the Islamic world and China, then focuses particular attention on the organization, composition, and reception of Latin reference books in print in early modern Europe. She explores in detail the sophisticated and sometimes idiosyncratic techniques that scholars and readers developed in an era of new technology and exploding information.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780300165395 20160605
Green Library
HISTORY-105A-01, HISTORY-5A-01
Book
xii, 269 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
  • Reaction time and the personal equation
  • The measure of all thoughts
  • Moments of contact
  • Captured by cinematography
  • Stabilizing physics
  • Reacting to relativity.
In the late fifteenth century, clocks acquired minute hands. A century later, second hands appeared. But it wasn't until the 1850s that instruments could recognize a tenth of a second, and, once they did, the impact on modern science and society was profound. Revealing the history behind this infinitesimal interval, "A Tenth of a Second" enhances our understanding of modernity and illuminates the work of important thinkers of the last two centuries. Tracing debates about the nature of time, causality, and free will, as well as the introduction of modern technologies, Jimena Canales locates the reverberations of this 'perceptual moment' throughout culture. Once scientists associated the tenth of a second with the speed of thought, they developed reaction time experiments with lasting implications for experimental psychology, physiology, and optics. Meanwhile, astronomers and physicists struggled to control the profound consequences of results that were a tenth of a second off. And references to the interval became part of a general inquiry into time, consciousness, and sensory experience that involved rethinking the contributions of Descartes and Kant. Featuring appearances by Henri Bergson, Walter Benjamin, and Albert Einstein, among others, "A Tenth of a Second" is an important contribution to history and a novel perspective on modernity.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780226093185 20160528
Green Library
HISTORY-105A-01, HISTORY-5A-01
Book
xi, 270 p. ; 24 cm.
  • Acknowledgments Note on Transcription 1. Introduction 2. Islam, Nationalism, and Audition 3. The Ethics of Listening 4. Cassettes and Counterpublics 5. Rhetorics of the Da& ayn--iya 6. The Acoustics of Death 7. Epilogue Notes Works Cited Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780231138185 20160528
Charles Hirschkind's unique study explores how a popular Islamic media form& mdash; the cassette sermon& mdash; has profoundly transformed the political geography of the Middle East over the last three decades. An essential aspect of what is now called the Islamic Revival, the cassette sermon has become omnipresent in most Middle Eastern cities, punctuating the daily routines of many men and women. Hirschkind shows how sermon tapes have provided one of the means by which Islamic ethical traditions have been recalibrated to a modern political and technological order& mdash; to its noise and forms of pleasure and boredom, but also to its political incitements and call for citizen participation. Contrary to the belief that Islamic cassette sermons are a tool of militant indoctrination, Hirschkind argues that sermon tapes serve as an instrument of ethical self-improvement and as a vehicle for honing the sensibilities and affects of pious living. Focusing on Cairo's popular neighborhoods, Hirschkind highlights the pivotal role these tapes now play in an expanding arena of Islamic argumentation and debate& mdash; what he calls an "Islamic counterpublic." This emerging arena connects Islamic traditions of ethical discipline to practices of deliberation about the common good, the duties of Muslims as national citizens, and the challenges faced by diverse Muslim communities around the globe. The Ethical Soundscape is a brilliant analysis linking modern media practices of moral self-fashioning to the creation of increasingly powerful religious publics.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780231138185 20160528
Green Library
HISTORY-105A-01, HISTORY-5A-01
Book
xvii, 325 p. : ill., maps.
  • List of Figures Acknowledgments 1. A Traveling Clerk Goes to the Bookstores 2. The Library of Public Information 3. Maps Are Strange 4. Blood Right and Merit 5. The Freedom of the City 6. Cultural Custody, Cultural Literacy 7. Nation Notes Bibliography Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780520237667 20160605
A quiet revolution in knowledge separated the early modern period in Japan from all previous time. After 1600, self-appointed investigators used the model of the land and cartographic surveys of the newly unified state to observe and order subjects such as agronomy, medicine, gastronomy, commerce, travel, and entertainment. They subsequently circulated their findings through a variety of commercially printed texts: maps, gazetteers, family encyclopedias, urban directories, travel guides, official personnel rosters, and instruction manuals for everything from farming to lovemaking. In this original and gracefully written book, Mary Elizabeth Berry considers the social processes that drove the information explosion of the 1600s.Inviting readers to examine the contours and meanings of this transformation, Berry provides a fascinating account of the conversion of the public from an object of state surveillance into a subject of self-knowledge. "Japan in Print" shows how, as investigators collected and disseminated richly diverse data, they came to presume in their audience a standard of cultural literacy that changed anonymous consumers into an "us" bound by common frames of reference. This shared space of knowledge made society visible to itself and in the process subverted notions of status hierarchy. Berry demonstrates that the new public texts projected a national collectivity characterized by universal access to markets, mobility, sociability, and self-fashioning.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780520237667 20160605
eReserve
HISTORY-105A-01, HISTORY-5A-01
Book
xi, 261 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm.
How the way we hold knowledge about the past - in books, in file folders, in databases - affects the kind of stories we tell about that past. The way we record knowledge, and the web of technical, formal, and social practices that surrounds it, inevitably affects the knowledge that we record. The ways we hold knowledge about the past - in hand-written manuscripts, in printed books, in file folders, in databases - shape the kind of stories we tell about that past. In this lively and erudite look at the relation of our information infrastructures to our information, Geoffrey Bowker examines how, over the past two hundred years, information technology has converged with the nature and production of scientific knowledge. His story weaves a path between the social and political work of creating an explicit, indexical memory for science - the making of infrastructures - and the variety of ways we continually reconfigure, lose, and regain the past. At a time when memory is so cheap and its recording is so protean, Bowker reminds us of the centrality of what and how we choose to forget. In Memory Practices in the Sciences he looks at three "memory epochs" of the nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first centuries and their particular reconstructions/reconfigurations of scientific knowledge. The nineteenth century's central science, geology, mapped both the social and the natural world into a single time package (despite apparent discontinuities), as, in a different way, did mid-twentieth-century cybernetics; both, Bowker argues, packaged time in ways indexed by their information technologies to permit traffic between the social and natural worlds. The sciences of biodiversity today, meanwhile, "database the world" in a way that excludes certain spaces, entities, and times. We use the tools of the present to look at the past, says Bowker; we project onto nature our modes of organising our own affairs.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780262025898 20160528
Green Library
HISTORY-105A-01, HISTORY-5A-01
Book
vii, 340 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Users have become an integral part of technology studies. The essays in this volume look at the creative capacity of users to shape technology in all phases, from design to implementation. Using a variety of theoretical approaches, including a feminist focus on users and use (in place of the traditional emphasis on men and machines), concepts from semiotics, and the cultural studies view of consumption as a cultural activity, these essays examine what users do with technology and, in turn, what technology does to users. The contributors consider how users consume, modify, domesticate, design, reconfigure, and resist technological development--and how users are defined and transformed by technology. The book first shows how resistance to and non-use of a technology can be a crucial factor in the eventual modification and improvement of that technology, then looks at advocacy groups and the many kinds of users they represent, particularly in the context of health care and clinical testing. Finally, it examines the role of users in different phases of the design, testing, and selling of technology. Included here is an enlightening account of one company's design process for men's and women's shavers, which resulted in a "Ladyshave" for users assumed to be technophobes.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780262151078 20160528
Green Library, SAL1&2 (on-campus shelving)
HISTORY-105A-01, HISTORY-5A-01
Book
xiii, 329 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
How does science create knowledge? Epistemic cultures, shaped by affinity, necessity and historical coincidence, determine how people know and what they know. This text compares two epistemic cultures, those in high energy physics and molecular biology. It highlights the diversity of these cultures of knowing and, in its depiction of their differences - in the meaning of the empirical, the enactment of object relations, and the fashioning of social relations - challenges the accepted view of unified science. Comtemporary Western societies are becoming "knowledge societies", which run on expert processes and systems epitomized by science and structured into all areas of social life. This work addresses questions about how such expert systems and processes work, what principles inform their cognitive and procedural orientations and whether their organization, structures and operations can be extended to other forms of social order.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780674258938 20160527
Green Library, SAL1&2 (on-campus shelving)
HISTORY-105A-01, HISTORY-5A-01
Book
xxv, 419 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
  • Acknowledgments Introduction 1: The Modern Fact, the Problem of Induction, and Questions of Method 2: Accommodating Merchants: Double-Entry Bookkeeping, Mercantile Expertise, and the Effect of Accuracy 3: The Political Anatomy of the Economy: English Science and Irish Land 4: Experimental Moral Philosophy and the Problems of Liberal Governmentality 5: From Conjectural History to Political Economy 6: Reconfiguring Facts and Theory: Vestiges of Providentialism in the New Science of Wealth 7: Figures of Arithmetic, Figures of Speech: The Problem of Induction in the 1830s Notes Bibliography Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780226675251 20160528
Exploring such questions as "how did fact become modernity's most favoured unit of knowledge?", this text contains ideas and texts from the publication of the first British manual on double-entry bookkeeping in 1588 to the institutionalization of statistics in the 1830s. It shows how the production of systematic knowledge from descriptions of observed particulars influenced government; how numerical representation became the privileged vehicle for generating useful facts; and how belief - whether figured as credit, credibility, or credulity - remained essential to the production of knowledge.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780226675251 20160528
Green Library
HISTORY-105A-01, HISTORY-5A-01
Book
xiii, 264 p. ; c24 cm.
  • Acknowledgements-- 1. The argument-- 2. The doctrine of necessity-- 3. Public amateurs, secret bureaucrats-- 4. Bureaux-- 5. The sweet despotism of reason-- 6. The quantum of sickness-- 7. The granary of science-- 8. Suicide is a kind of madness-- 9. The experimental basis of the philosophy of legislation-- 10. Facts without authenticity, without detail, without control, and without value-- 11. By what majority?-- 12. The law of large numbers-- 13. Regimental chests-- 14. Society prepares the crimes-- 15. The astronomical conception of society-- 16. The mineralogical conception of society-- 17. The most ancient nobility-- 18. Cassirer's thesis-- 19. The normal state-- 20. As real as cosmic forces-- 21. The autonomy of statistical law-- 22. A chapter from Prussian statistics-- 23. A universe of chance-- Notes-- Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)9780521380140 20160528
In this important new study Ian Hacking continues the enquiry into the origins and development of certain characteristic modes of contemporary thought undertaken in such previous works as the best-selling The Emergence of Probability. Professor Hacking shows how by the late nineteenth century it became possible to think of statistical patterns as explanatory in themselves, and to regard the world as not necessarily deterministic in character. In the same period the idea of human nature was displaced by a model of normal people with laws of dispersion. These two parallel transformations fed into each other, so that chance made the world seem less capricious: it was legitimated because it brought order out of chaos. Professor Hacking argues that these developments have led to a new style of scientific reasoning gaining its hold upon us. The greater the level of indeterminism in our conception of the world and of people, the more we expect control and intervention in our lives, and the less we expect freedom. Combining detailed scientific historical research with characteristic philosophic breadth and verve, The Taming of Chance brings out the relations between philosophy, the physical sciences, mathematics and the development of social institutions, and provides a unique and authoritative analysis of the 'probabilisation' of the western world.
(source: Nielsen Book Data)9780521380140 20160528
Green Library, Philosophy Library (Tanner)
HISTORY-105A-01, HISTORY-5A-01
Book
xxiv, 387 p. ; 19 cm.
Green Library
HISTORY-105A-01, HISTORY-5A-01