Book
1 online resource (42 pages) : color illustrations Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
Book
1 online resource (104 pages) : color illustrations Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
Soil evidence has the potential to be a valuable forensic tool linking a suspect, victim, or item to a crime scene, however, there is currently no reliable and objective method for individualizing soil, as only class characteristics are considered in traditional analysis. In this research, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was examined, for the purpose of identifying a soils' origin. Soil was collected from ten different habitat types to establish the general feasibility of differentiating soils based on bacterial profiles. Next, the much more challenging task of differentiating similar habitats was examined by comparing soils from nine woodlots in very close proximity. Factors that can affect bacterial profiles within a site were also considered, by collecting soils over time and space in three habitats. Finally, mock evidentiary items, including cotton t-shirts, a shovel, shoes, socks, and a tire, were exposed to soil to examine its traceability back to the site of origin, both immediately and over time. Soil bacterial profiles were generated using an Illumina MiSeq, which produced approximately 150,000 sequences per soil sample. Initially, five methods for analyzing the sequence data were examined as bacterial profile comparison tools (bacterial abundance charts, pairwise comparisons, nonmetric multidimensional scaling, hierarchical cluster analysis, and the supervised classification technique k-Nearest Neighbor). Based on preliminary results, pairwise comparisons and hierarchical cluster analysis were eliminated because they often produced ambiguous results. Abundance charts and nonmetric multidimensional scaling provided simplification and visualization of the massive amounts of data, a clear benefit for explaining complicated scientific results to a jury. k-Nearest Neighbor offered an objective, statistics-based assignment of soil to a location, helping to meet the standards suggested in the National Research Council's 2009 report on forensic science. Diverse and similar habitats were successfully differentiated in both multidimensional space and through supervised classification, which accurately classified soil samples back to their locations of origin 100% and 87.5% of the time respectively. Time and space within a habitat did not affect bacterial profiles enough to hinder location of origin assignment, where samples were correctly classified an average of 96% of the time. Soil collected from evidentiary items exhibited abundance change of certain taxonomic classes, but remained clustered nearest its location of origin, 100% accurately classifying even after a full year or storage. The considerable success in tracing soils back to a location of origin demonstrates the potential of next-generation sequencing of bacteria, in conjunction with a combination of robust statistical techniques, for the individualization of forensic soil samples."--Abstract.
Book
1 online resource (46 pages ) : color illustrations
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
The purpose of this research was to develop a portable prototype instrument designed to provide forensic examiners with the ability to characterize a tool marked surface, compare the data from that surface to data files obtained from any other surface, and evaluate the likelihood that the two surfaces were made by using the same tool. While the areas selected for characterization are at the discretion of the examiner, acquisition of the data is carried out using a system based on a portable 3-D optical profilometer manufactured by Alicona, GmbH. Comparison of resulting data files is done in an objective manner using software algorithms developed and tested by researchers at Ames Laboratory / Iowa State University (AL/ISU). Due to the relatively small size of the instrument the actual device is portable; all the microscopic components can be packed into a hard-shell suitcase allowing it to be taken directly to crime scenes if need be. The software package used for analysis, called "Mantis, " standing for Mark and Tool Inspection Suite, is resident on a laptop computer. Mantis is designed to be user friendly and easy to operate and employs open source software code to allow for continued research and expansion. Currently, using the system an examiner can 1) compare types of tool marked surfaces in a manner similar to a comparison microscope; 2) obtain objective statistical evaluation of data files; 3) elucidate factors that existed when certain types of took marks were made, e.g., angle of the tool. The design of the system is such that it provides an open source platform that other researchers can write algorithms for and test, while offering data-files that can be used by any system or researcher. Finally, all these benefits are resident in a portable system available at a greatly reduced hardware cost as compared to current systems in use. All this time the system has been tested on data sets consisting of i) fully striated marks created from 50 sequentially manufactured screwdrivers, ii) quasi striated markings produced by 50 sequentially manufactured shear-cut pliers, and iii) impression marks produced by 50 sequentially manufacturerd cold chisels. In all cases the system was able to analyze the markings and separate true matches from nonmatches to a high level of success. Explanatory studies on rifling marks left on fired bullets and cut marks produced by knives presented a greater challenge, due to both the size of the files and their instrinsic nature. These initial results suggest that further development of statistical algorithms to address more complex markings is required.
Book
1 online resource (5 unnumbered pages). Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
This is a draft memo submitted via the State Department's Dissent Channel and signed by an unknown number of US State Department Foreign Service officers and other US diplomats. The memo was a dissenting opinion in response to President Trump's executive order entitled, "Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States, " signed January 27, 2017 instituting a suspension of entry to the U.S. and issuances of visas for people from Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen. The order also temporarily suspends all refugee admission and indefinitely suspends refugee admissions from Syria. The State Department's Dissent Channel is a mechanism for employees to confidentially express policy disagreement, created in 1971 as a response to concerns within the Department over the government's handling of the Vietnam War. Authors of a memo submitted through the Channel, which is open to all regular employees of the State Department and USAID, may not be subject to any penalty or disciplinary action in response. Once a memo is submitted, the Secretary of State's Policy Planning Staff must acknowledge its receipt within two working days and will usually distribute it to the Secretary of State, the Deputy Secretary of State, the Under Secretary for Political Affairs, the Chairperson of the Open Forum, and, if the memo's author is employed by USAID, by the head of that agency as well. Taking into account the wishes of the author, the memo may also be distributed more broadly within the State Department and may be done so anonymously. The ultimate significance of the channel is that memos must receive a substantive response within 30-60 working days.
Book
1 online resource (35 pages) Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
This study addresses this important gap in the scientific knowledge by testing the impacts of a family strengthening intervention for reentering fathers and their children. This report presents key findings from the evaluation including information on the demographics of the families in the program, the program's implementation and effectiveness, and recommendations for improving future family strengthening programs for reentering fathers and their families.
Book
1 online resource (41 unnumbered pages).
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
CBO and the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) have completed an estimate of the direct spending and revenue effects of H.R. 1628, the American Health Care Act of 2017, as passed by the House of Representatives. CBO and JCT estimate that enacting that version of H.R. 1628 would reduce the cumulative federal deficit over the 2017-2026 period by $119 billion. That amount is $32 billion less than the estimated net savings for the version of H.R. 1628 that was posted on the website of the House Committee on Rules on March 22, 2017, incorporating manager's amendments 4, 5, 24, and 25. CBO and JCT estimate that, in 2018, 14 million more people would be uninsured under H.R. 1628 than under current law. The increase in the number of uninsured people relative to the number projected under current law would reach 19 million in 2020 and 23 million in 2026. In 2026, an estimated 51 million people under age 65 would be uninsured, compared with 28 million who would lack insurance that year under current law. Under the legislation, a few million of those people would use tax credits to purchase policies that would not cover major medical risks
Book
1 online resource (10 unnumbered pages).
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
  • [Letter from Keith Hall to Paul Ryan]
  • Table 1. Summary of the direct spending and revenue effects of H.R. 1628, the American Health Care act of 2017, incorporating manager's amendments 4, 5, 24, and 25 (Walden and Brady)
  • Table 2. Estimate of the direct spending and revenue effects of H.R. 1628, the American Health Care act of 2017, incorporating manager's amendments 4, 5, 24, and 25 (Walden and Brady)
  • Table 3. Estimate of the net budgetary effects of the insurance coverage provisions of H.R. 1628, the American Health Care act of 2017, incorporating manager's amendments 4, 5, 24, and 25 (Walden and Brady)
  • Table 4. Effects of H.R. 1628, the American Health Care act of 2017, incorporating manager's amendments 4, 5, 24, and 25 (Walden and Brady), on health insurance coverage for people under age 65.
"CBO and the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) have prepared an estimate of the direct spending and revenue effects of H.R. 1628, the American Health Care Act, as posted on the website of the House Committee on Rules on March 22, 2017, incorporating manager's amendments 4, 5, 24, and 25. As a result of those amendments, this estimate shows smaller savings over the next 10 years than the estimate that CBO issued on March 13 for the reconciliation recommendations of the House Committee on Ways and Means and the House Committee on Energy and Commerce. The estimated effects on health insurance coverage and on premiums for health insurance are similar to those estimated for the committees' recommendations."--Document home page.
Book
1 online resource (ii, 160 page)
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
On December 7, 2015, the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) , Civil Rights Division, Special Litigation Section, and the United States Attorney’s Office for the Northern District of Illinois, jointly initiated an investigation of the City of Chicago’s Police Department (CPD) and the Independent Police Review Authority (IPRA). This investigation was undertaken to determine whether the Chicago Police Department is engaging in a pattern or practice of unlawful conduct and, if so, what systemic deficiencies or practices within CPD, IPRA, and the City might be facilitating or causing this pattern or practice. Our investigation assessed CPD’s use of force, including deadly force, and addressed CPD policies, training, reporting, investigation, and review related to officer use of force. The investigation further addressed CPD ’s and IPRA’s systems of accountability both as they relate to officer use of force and officer misconduct, including the intake, investigation, and review of allegations of officer misconduct, and the imposition of discipline or other corrective action. We also investigated racial, ethnic, or other disparities in CPD’s force and accountability practices, and assessed how those disparities inform the breakdown in community trust
Book
1 online resource (84 pages) : color illustrations Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
"This report describes the results from a National Institute of Justice funded statistical research project through the National Center of Forensic Science at the University of Central Florida. The motivation of the study was to strengthen the statistical basis for handwriting comparisons, following the recognition that the discipline of forensic document examination was facing increasing judicial scrutiny under the Daubert guidelines as recognized by the profession and subsequently reported in the National Research Council report, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (2009). In response, this project's objectives were to develop statistically valid frequency occurrence proportions for selected characteristics of handwriting and hand printing based on specimen samples representative of the United States population, to provide practitioners of forensic document examination with a statistical basis for reliability and measurement validity and to provide courts with the requested supporting data The project produced an initial set of over 2500 precise handwriting and hand printing features that were subsequently reduced to 903 features which passed an attribute agreement analysis and to 786 that were utilized in this project. These attribute features (presence/absence) can be unambiguously identified by forensic document examiners. Handwriting samples from over 1500 writers were collected representing a broad spectrum of contributors intended to be representative of the US adult population. Meeting the pre-specified population representation led to the selection of a subset of 880 cursive specimens and 839 hand printed specimens that closely approximated the demographic proportions represented in the US. The analysis of these specimens yielded numerous specific frequency occurrence proportions. Additional analyses have shown quantitatively the extent to which demographic features such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, location of second/third grade training and handedness impact the presence/absence of features. An immediate benefit of the databases analysis has been a detailed assessment of the scope of the appropriateness of the product rule. This project relied heavily on international standards and appropriate statistical methodology to develop the sampling protocols."--Abstract.
Book
1 online resource (20 pages) : color illustrations, color maps
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
Book
1 online resource (11 unnumbered pages). Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
"In light of the stigma and discrimination experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning, gender nonconforming, and transgender ("LGBQ/GNCT") youth that leads to criminalization and overrepresentation in the juvenile justice system, the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender ("LGBT") Subcommittee of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice ("FACJJ") was formed to recommend innovative ideas and strategies to the Department of Justice ("DOJ") to advance juvenile justice reform for LGBQ/GNCT youth. While the FACJJ's efforts to support all youth benefit LGBQ/GNCT youth, there are many other steps that the federal government can take to address the unique harms that they experience. The recommendations were formulated by the members of the LGBT subcommittee, which is comprised of 3 members of the FACJJ and 18 leaders from across the country with a diverse array of experience. They include policy professionals, social science researchers, public defenders, probation officers, advocates, and state and local civil servants -- all of whom work with and/or identify as LGBQ/GNCT youth. The recommendations focus on actions that the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention ("OJJDP") can take to support state and local juvenile justice reform through federal action and by providing a roadmap for how a model juvenile justice system would address the needs of LGBQ/GNCT youth."--Introduction.
Book
1 online resource (xiii, 32 pages). Digital: text file; PDF.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
  • Introduction
  • How does the Army leverage social media?
  • Social media and information operations (IO)
  • Force structures, training & education, and equipment
  • Conclusion
  • Policy recommendations.
"The impact of social media on the media environment has been widely recognized; as has the ability of extremist and adversarial organizations to exploit social media to publicize their cause, spread their propaganda, and recruit vulnerable individuals. Supporting the growth of social media has been the phenomenal global increase in mobile telephone usage, and much of this increase is in areas where there are existing conflicts or conflicts are highly likely. These combined revolutions will increasingly have a direct impact on virtually all aspects of military operations in the 21st century. In doing so, social media will force significant changes to policy, doctrine, and force structures. This Letort Paper explores the implications of social media for the U.S. Army"--Publisher's web site.
Book
1 online resource (39 pages) Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
Book
1 online resource (19 pages). Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
"The Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) released a list of 100 actions taken by President Trump and his Administration during his first 100 days in office. As a result of Black Lives Matter and other grassroots movements launched and led by young people, the phrase "stay woke" has recently experienced a rebirth in the American lexicon. In general, "stay woke" or "stay awake" means to stay focused on what is really being said and done to and around you, especially as it relates to police brutality and other elements of African-Americans' years-long struggle to fully achieve the American Dream. However, as a result of the election of the 45th President of the United States, Donald J. Trump, the phrase has taken on new meaning. In this new political climate, "stay woke" means to stay informed about the policies and programs of this Administration and how they will affect our communities (e.g. children, women, people of color, LGBT, immigrants, poor, middle-class and others) and the country. Unfortunately, staying informed about these policies and programs often means wading through the waters of "alternative facts" about them from President Trump and his Administration. At the beginning of the 115th Congress, the Congressional Black Caucus launched "What Did Trump Do?", a rapid response messaging document we use to inform our external stakeholders about recent actions taken by President Trump and his Administration. This "What Did Trump Do?" is a special #StayWoke edition that includes a list of 100 actions President Trump and his Administration have taken over the last 100 days, and was developed for the 78 million Americans the CBC collectively represents, including 17 million African Americans, as well as the millions of Americans we do not represent. During the presidential campaign, President Trump promised to "make America great again." However, all of the actions on this list will not, in our view, make America great. They will do the very opposite of that. While it is troubling that the actions on this list have occurred and, in addition, that they have occurred in only 100 days of President Trump's term, what is really troubling is that this new leader of the free world has hundreds of more days left in his term. The actions on this list are informative, but not exhaustive, and are our contribution to the #StayWoke conversation started by young people. We hope that they will help you #StayWoke."--Introduction.
Book
1 online resource (20 pages) Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
"This document describes updated guidance and resources from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for responding to cases of Zika virus infection in the continental United States (CONUS) and Hawaii. This guidance is targeted to state, local, and tribal jurisdictions, which are responsible for responding to Zika virus disease in their communities. This guidance may also be used by jurisdictions in US territories and freely associated states as applicable and adapted as needed. Information is provided to assist jurisdictions in protecting pregnant women and infants and responding to travel-associated, sexually transmitted, and locally acquired Zika virus infections in the United States. CDC encourages jurisdictions to use existing funding to support these activities. There are no additional funds available from CDC at this time to support implementation of this guidance. This document serves as a reference for public health decision-making and is not meant to be prescriptive or comprehensive, as activities and decisions are jurisdiction- and event-specific. The response activities outlined in this plan are based on currently available knowledge about Zika virus, its transmission, and its effects on pregnant women and infants. These activities may change as more is learned about Zika virus. This CDC Zika Interim Response Plan replaces previous versions posted on July 31, 2016, September 30, 2016, and October 21, 2016. Building on lessons learned in 2016 and feedback from state and local health partners, CDC has revised this document to be more streamlined, added links to existing guidance on CDC's website, and updated critical guidance. Detailed guidance on issuing and removing Zika active transmission (red) area designations and Zika cautionary (yellow) area designations has been provided. In addition, the guidance for identifying areas at risk for the purpose of blood and tissue safety is now more closely aligned with the guidance for issuing travel and testing guidance."--Zika interim response plan website, viewed June 21, 2017
Book
1 online resource ([2] unnumbered pages, 38 pages) Digital: text file; PDF.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
  • Introduction
  • Brief history of administrative segregation
  • Contemporary use of administrative segregation
  • Issues related to the use of solitary confinement
  • Court decisions and consent decrees
  • The utility and effects of administrative segregation
  • The effects of solitary confinement
  • The future of administrative segregation
  • Conclusion
  • Works cited
  • About the authors
  • Appendix A1: Administrative segregation in the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP)
  • Appendix A2: Percentage of custodial population (both sexes) in administrative segregation (Ad Seg) and restrictive housing
  • Appendix A3: Goals and intended impacts associated with supermax prisons.
"The introductory section notes that given the variety of terms used to describe various practices that separate individual inmates from the general inmate population, the authors decided not to use "administrative segregation" as an umbrella term. They use the terms "segregation" or "segregation in restricted housing units." The authors distinguish between solitary confinement through "disciplinary segregation, " which refers to short-term confinement after a specific infraction, and solitary confinement through "administrative segregation, " which refers to long-term classification to a "supermax" unit or facility within a correctional system. The first part of the paper focuses on administrative segregation rather than disciplinary segregation; however, the discussion of the empirical research refers more broadly to solitary confinement. After reviewing the research, the authors conclude that few researchers question that some prisoners being held in isolation are exceptionally dangerous and violent, which might require some type of segregation; on the other hand, few would also conclude that all, or even most, prisoners held in isolation require the type of solitary confinement that is typical of such settings, particularly for extended periods. Virtually all researchers conclude that the harms associated with extended solitary confinement could and should be avoided. Recommendations for future research are to establish consensus definitions; collect and analyze data for prevalence estimates; distinguish effects of short-term and long-term solitary confinement; establish standards for researchers to access segregated inmate populations; and prioritize funding for reliable research. 3 tables, approximately 100 references, and appended supplementary information"--NCJRS website.
Book
1 online resource (v, 22 pages, [1] unnumbered page) : color illustrations.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
The Bridge Project aims to facilitate the translation of juvenile justice research into actionable policy and practice changes through the development of practitioner-friendly, application-ready products. In the first year of the project, Urban’s team of multidisciplinary researchers focused on identifying areas where research is not fully informing policy and practice. Using a systematic approach, the Urban team identified Applying a Child and Adolescent Developmental Approach to Practice as a pressing gap in the field -- one in which practitioners, stakeholders, researchers, and national experts agreed that few practical tools for translation exist.
Book
1 online resource (xii, 46 pages) : illustrations (some color), color maps Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
This anthology was prepared as a contribution to Department of Defense--led interagency efforts to commemorate the passing of 50 years since the large-scale engagement of the military forces of the United States and other countries in defending the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) against communist guerrilla, mainforce, and North Vietnamese Army units. For CIA, and many members of the US military, engagement in South Vietnam began well before what is marked as the beginning of the 50th anniversary commemoration, 1965. As the 41 articles selected by CIA historian Clayton Laurie for this anthology will show, Southeast Asia was the focus of CIA activity as long ago as the early 1950s, when it was directed to provide support to French efforts to maintain control of its colony of Indochina.
Book
1 online resource (xiii, 413 pages) : charts Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
  • Introduction
  • Letter from the Director
  • Collaborative Reform Team
  • Executive summary
  • Part I. Introduction. 1. Organization and structure
  • Part II. Assessment. 2. Use of force
  • 3. Bias
  • 4. Community policing practices
  • 5. Accountability
  • 6. Recruitment, hiring, and personnel practices
  • Part III. Conclusion. 7. Summary
  • 8. Next steps
  • Part IV. Appendices
  • Appendix A. Findings and recommendations
  • Appendix B. Background on San Francisco. San Francisco Police Department
  • San Francisco crime statistics
  • Appendix C. Methods
  • Appendix D. Use of force data and methodology
  • Appendix E. Traffice stop data statistical analysis
  • Appendix F. SFPD stop data collection recommendations
  • Appendix G. Memorandum of Agreement between U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services and San Francisco Police Department for collaborative reform initiative for technical assistance
  • Appendix H. Goal and objectives statement
  • Appendix I. Memorandum re: Review of San Francisco proposed use of force policies
  • Appendix J. SFPD draft Department General Order 5.01: Use of force
  • Appendix K. Memorandum re: Recommendation regarding recent electronic communication incident
  • Abbreviations and acronyms
  • Bibliography
  • About the COPS Office.
In response to community concerns regarding several controversial officer-involved shootings, San Francisco Mayor Ed Lee and former Police Chief Greg Suhr asked the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS Office) to assess the department’s policies and practices through the Collaborative Reform Initiative for Technical Assistance (CRI-TA) process.
Dataset
1 online resource Digital: data file; text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
  • December 2016 state-by-state data
  • December 2016 state-by-state spreadsheet sources by column.
This excel table contains the most up to date state-level data available related to certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act. This table includes data on the uninsured, private market reforms, employer coverage, Medicaid, the individual market (including the Health Insurance Marketplace), and Medicare. These data are drawn from previously published sources and new analyses. Also includes a text document with sources and additional details.