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Book
1 online resource (87 pages) : color illustrations
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
"The purpose of this research is threefold:1) to examine the extent to which human trafficking in the United States is perpetrated by organized criminal groups; 2) to better understand the groups, individuals, and operations of the organized crime, and operations of the organized crime groups engaged in human trafficking; and 3) to make available the full corpus of federally prosecuted human trafficking cases in a dynamic, open-source, searchable online database at HumanTraffickingData.org."--PDF Executive summary.
Book
1 online resource (42 pages) : color illustrations Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
Book
1 online resource (104 pages) : color illustrations Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
Soil evidence has the potential to be a valuable forensic tool linking a suspect, victim, or item to a crime scene, however, there is currently no reliable and objective method for individualizing soil, as only class characteristics are considered in traditional analysis. In this research, the utility of soil bacterial profiling via next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was examined, for the purpose of identifying a soils' origin. Soil was collected from ten different habitat types to establish the general feasibility of differentiating soils based on bacterial profiles. Next, the much more challenging task of differentiating similar habitats was examined by comparing soils from nine woodlots in very close proximity. Factors that can affect bacterial profiles within a site were also considered, by collecting soils over time and space in three habitats. Finally, mock evidentiary items, including cotton t-shirts, a shovel, shoes, socks, and a tire, were exposed to soil to examine its traceability back to the site of origin, both immediately and over time. Soil bacterial profiles were generated using an Illumina MiSeq, which produced approximately 150,000 sequences per soil sample. Initially, five methods for analyzing the sequence data were examined as bacterial profile comparison tools (bacterial abundance charts, pairwise comparisons, nonmetric multidimensional scaling, hierarchical cluster analysis, and the supervised classification technique k-Nearest Neighbor). Based on preliminary results, pairwise comparisons and hierarchical cluster analysis were eliminated because they often produced ambiguous results. Abundance charts and nonmetric multidimensional scaling provided simplification and visualization of the massive amounts of data, a clear benefit for explaining complicated scientific results to a jury. k-Nearest Neighbor offered an objective, statistics-based assignment of soil to a location, helping to meet the standards suggested in the National Research Council's 2009 report on forensic science. Diverse and similar habitats were successfully differentiated in both multidimensional space and through supervised classification, which accurately classified soil samples back to their locations of origin 100% and 87.5% of the time respectively. Time and space within a habitat did not affect bacterial profiles enough to hinder location of origin assignment, where samples were correctly classified an average of 96% of the time. Soil collected from evidentiary items exhibited abundance change of certain taxonomic classes, but remained clustered nearest its location of origin, 100% accurately classifying even after a full year or storage. The considerable success in tracing soils back to a location of origin demonstrates the potential of next-generation sequencing of bacteria, in conjunction with a combination of robust statistical techniques, for the individualization of forensic soil samples."--Abstract.
Book
1 online resource (46 pages ) : color illustrations
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
The purpose of this research was to develop a portable prototype instrument designed to provide forensic examiners with the ability to characterize a tool marked surface, compare the data from that surface to data files obtained from any other surface, and evaluate the likelihood that the two surfaces were made by using the same tool. While the areas selected for characterization are at the discretion of the examiner, acquisition of the data is carried out using a system based on a portable 3-D optical profilometer manufactured by Alicona, GmbH. Comparison of resulting data files is done in an objective manner using software algorithms developed and tested by researchers at Ames Laboratory / Iowa State University (AL/ISU). Due to the relatively small size of the instrument the actual device is portable; all the microscopic components can be packed into a hard-shell suitcase allowing it to be taken directly to crime scenes if need be. The software package used for analysis, called "Mantis, " standing for Mark and Tool Inspection Suite, is resident on a laptop computer. Mantis is designed to be user friendly and easy to operate and employs open source software code to allow for continued research and expansion. Currently, using the system an examiner can 1) compare types of tool marked surfaces in a manner similar to a comparison microscope; 2) obtain objective statistical evaluation of data files; 3) elucidate factors that existed when certain types of took marks were made, e.g., angle of the tool. The design of the system is such that it provides an open source platform that other researchers can write algorithms for and test, while offering data-files that can be used by any system or researcher. Finally, all these benefits are resident in a portable system available at a greatly reduced hardware cost as compared to current systems in use. All this time the system has been tested on data sets consisting of i) fully striated marks created from 50 sequentially manufactured screwdrivers, ii) quasi striated markings produced by 50 sequentially manufactured shear-cut pliers, and iii) impression marks produced by 50 sequentially manufacturerd cold chisels. In all cases the system was able to analyze the markings and separate true matches from nonmatches to a high level of success. Explanatory studies on rifling marks left on fired bullets and cut marks produced by knives presented a greater challenge, due to both the size of the files and their instrinsic nature. These initial results suggest that further development of statistical algorithms to address more complex markings is required.
Book
1 online resource (5 unnumbered pages). Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
This is a draft memo submitted via the State Department's Dissent Channel and signed by an unknown number of US State Department Foreign Service officers and other US diplomats. The memo was a dissenting opinion in response to President Trump's executive order entitled, "Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States, " signed January 27, 2017 instituting a suspension of entry to the U.S. and issuances of visas for people from Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen. The order also temporarily suspends all refugee admission and indefinitely suspends refugee admissions from Syria. The State Department's Dissent Channel is a mechanism for employees to confidentially express policy disagreement, created in 1971 as a response to concerns within the Department over the government's handling of the Vietnam War. Authors of a memo submitted through the Channel, which is open to all regular employees of the State Department and USAID, may not be subject to any penalty or disciplinary action in response. Once a memo is submitted, the Secretary of State's Policy Planning Staff must acknowledge its receipt within two working days and will usually distribute it to the Secretary of State, the Deputy Secretary of State, the Under Secretary for Political Affairs, the Chairperson of the Open Forum, and, if the memo's author is employed by USAID, by the head of that agency as well. Taking into account the wishes of the author, the memo may also be distributed more broadly within the State Department and may be done so anonymously. The ultimate significance of the channel is that memos must receive a substantive response within 30-60 working days.
Book
1 online resource (xii, 114 pages) : illustrations (some color), color maps
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
Book
1 online resource (35 pages) Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
This study addresses this important gap in the scientific knowledge by testing the impacts of a family strengthening intervention for reentering fathers and their children. This report presents key findings from the evaluation including information on the demographics of the families in the program, the program's implementation and effectiveness, and recommendations for improving future family strengthening programs for reentering fathers and their families.
Book
1 online resource (41 unnumbered pages).
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
CBO and the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) have completed an estimate of the direct spending and revenue effects of H.R. 1628, the American Health Care Act of 2017, as passed by the House of Representatives. CBO and JCT estimate that enacting that version of H.R. 1628 would reduce the cumulative federal deficit over the 2017-2026 period by $119 billion. That amount is $32 billion less than the estimated net savings for the version of H.R. 1628 that was posted on the website of the House Committee on Rules on March 22, 2017, incorporating manager's amendments 4, 5, 24, and 25. CBO and JCT estimate that, in 2018, 14 million more people would be uninsured under H.R. 1628 than under current law. The increase in the number of uninsured people relative to the number projected under current law would reach 19 million in 2020 and 23 million in 2026. In 2026, an estimated 51 million people under age 65 would be uninsured, compared with 28 million who would lack insurance that year under current law. Under the legislation, a few million of those people would use tax credits to purchase policies that would not cover major medical risks
Book
1 online resource (10 unnumbered pages).
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
  • [Letter from Keith Hall to Paul Ryan]
  • Table 1. Summary of the direct spending and revenue effects of H.R. 1628, the American Health Care act of 2017, incorporating manager's amendments 4, 5, 24, and 25 (Walden and Brady)
  • Table 2. Estimate of the direct spending and revenue effects of H.R. 1628, the American Health Care act of 2017, incorporating manager's amendments 4, 5, 24, and 25 (Walden and Brady)
  • Table 3. Estimate of the net budgetary effects of the insurance coverage provisions of H.R. 1628, the American Health Care act of 2017, incorporating manager's amendments 4, 5, 24, and 25 (Walden and Brady)
  • Table 4. Effects of H.R. 1628, the American Health Care act of 2017, incorporating manager's amendments 4, 5, 24, and 25 (Walden and Brady), on health insurance coverage for people under age 65.
"CBO and the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) have prepared an estimate of the direct spending and revenue effects of H.R. 1628, the American Health Care Act, as posted on the website of the House Committee on Rules on March 22, 2017, incorporating manager's amendments 4, 5, 24, and 25. As a result of those amendments, this estimate shows smaller savings over the next 10 years than the estimate that CBO issued on March 13 for the reconciliation recommendations of the House Committee on Ways and Means and the House Committee on Energy and Commerce. The estimated effects on health insurance coverage and on premiums for health insurance are similar to those estimated for the committees' recommendations."--Document home page.
Book
1 online resource (16 pages) Digital: text file. PDF.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
Financial exploitation of older adults (FE) is a highly significant social problem that, to date, has not received much attention from the field of psychology. Data sources tracking FE report that FE has been increasing with losses of approximately $2.9 billion dollars per year. Psychological risk factors are well established and psychological outcomes have recently been demonstrated. FE can occur at any stage of the lifespan and the literature regarding prevalence amongst older adults has been mixed in terms of supporting a theory that older adults are more "susceptible" to fraud. However, there has been literature with documentation that older adults are targeted disproportionately, and are less likely to report FE.
Book
1 online resource (20 pages) Digital: text file. PDF.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
Injury evidence and biological evidence gained from forensic medical examinations of victims can provide evidence about the crime as well as the means of linking a suspect to the crime. Evidence from a forensic medical examination can include genital and non-genital injuries, biological evidence (including sperm or semen, blood, and amylase, an enzyme of saliva), and a DNA profile that can often be derived from the biological evidence. This DNA can be matched to a potential suspect, matched to another investigation in the FBI’s Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), or matched to a convicted offender in CODIS. Injury evidence can be used to establish a victim’s lack of consent and could lead to physical assault charges. This project explored the use and impact of injury evidence and biological evidence through a study of the role of these forms of evidence in prosecuting sexual assault in an urban district attorney’s office in a metropolitan area in the eastern United States.
Book
1 online resource (17 pages)
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
Book
1 online resource (ii, 160 page)
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
On December 7, 2015, the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) , Civil Rights Division, Special Litigation Section, and the United States Attorney’s Office for the Northern District of Illinois, jointly initiated an investigation of the City of Chicago’s Police Department (CPD) and the Independent Police Review Authority (IPRA). This investigation was undertaken to determine whether the Chicago Police Department is engaging in a pattern or practice of unlawful conduct and, if so, what systemic deficiencies or practices within CPD, IPRA, and the City might be facilitating or causing this pattern or practice. Our investigation assessed CPD’s use of force, including deadly force, and addressed CPD policies, training, reporting, investigation, and review related to officer use of force. The investigation further addressed CPD ’s and IPRA’s systems of accountability both as they relate to officer use of force and officer misconduct, including the intake, investigation, and review of allegations of officer misconduct, and the imposition of discipline or other corrective action. We also investigated racial, ethnic, or other disparities in CPD’s force and accountability practices, and assessed how those disparities inform the breakdown in community trust
Book
1 online resource (84 pages) : color illustrations Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
"This report describes the results from a National Institute of Justice funded statistical research project through the National Center of Forensic Science at the University of Central Florida. The motivation of the study was to strengthen the statistical basis for handwriting comparisons, following the recognition that the discipline of forensic document examination was facing increasing judicial scrutiny under the Daubert guidelines as recognized by the profession and subsequently reported in the National Research Council report, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward (2009). In response, this project's objectives were to develop statistically valid frequency occurrence proportions for selected characteristics of handwriting and hand printing based on specimen samples representative of the United States population, to provide practitioners of forensic document examination with a statistical basis for reliability and measurement validity and to provide courts with the requested supporting data The project produced an initial set of over 2500 precise handwriting and hand printing features that were subsequently reduced to 903 features which passed an attribute agreement analysis and to 786 that were utilized in this project. These attribute features (presence/absence) can be unambiguously identified by forensic document examiners. Handwriting samples from over 1500 writers were collected representing a broad spectrum of contributors intended to be representative of the US adult population. Meeting the pre-specified population representation led to the selection of a subset of 880 cursive specimens and 839 hand printed specimens that closely approximated the demographic proportions represented in the US. The analysis of these specimens yielded numerous specific frequency occurrence proportions. Additional analyses have shown quantitatively the extent to which demographic features such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, location of second/third grade training and handedness impact the presence/absence of features. An immediate benefit of the databases analysis has been a detailed assessment of the scope of the appropriateness of the product rule. This project relied heavily on international standards and appropriate statistical methodology to develop the sampling protocols."--Abstract.
Book
1 online resource (20 pages) : color illustrations, color maps
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
Book
1 online resource (11 unnumbered pages). Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
"In light of the stigma and discrimination experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning, gender nonconforming, and transgender ("LGBQ/GNCT") youth that leads to criminalization and overrepresentation in the juvenile justice system, the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender ("LGBT") Subcommittee of the Federal Advisory Committee on Juvenile Justice ("FACJJ") was formed to recommend innovative ideas and strategies to the Department of Justice ("DOJ") to advance juvenile justice reform for LGBQ/GNCT youth. While the FACJJ's efforts to support all youth benefit LGBQ/GNCT youth, there are many other steps that the federal government can take to address the unique harms that they experience. The recommendations were formulated by the members of the LGBT subcommittee, which is comprised of 3 members of the FACJJ and 18 leaders from across the country with a diverse array of experience. They include policy professionals, social science researchers, public defenders, probation officers, advocates, and state and local civil servants -- all of whom work with and/or identify as LGBQ/GNCT youth. The recommendations focus on actions that the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention ("OJJDP") can take to support state and local juvenile justice reform through federal action and by providing a roadmap for how a model juvenile justice system would address the needs of LGBQ/GNCT youth."--Introduction.
Book
1 online resource (various pagings) : illustrations (some color)
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
"Scale modeling can allow fire investigators to replicate specific fire dynamics at a dramatically reduced cost. A gas burner, liquid pool, wood crib, and polyurethane foam block are used to represent the wide range of fuels that investigators encounter. These fuels are classified into two groups: the burner and liquid pool that reach a semi-immediate steady state (static fires) and the crib and foam that have a fire spread and growth period (dynamic fires). This research examines the proposed scaling method for the static fires. The enclosure consists of a large corridor that provides an interesting challenge due to the presence of partitions at the ceiling. The design fires and the model enclosure are designed based on Froude scaling derived from conservation equations. The eight various sized fires demonstrate acceptable scaling results in the prediction of flame height and temperature at various elevations in the enclosure."--PDF table of contents page.
Book
1 online resource (v, 70 pages) : illustrations (some color)
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
In 1998, the National Research Council issued a report “Black and Smokeless Powders: Technologies for Finding Bombs and the Bomb Makers”. [1] The NRC report recommended that a comprehensive national powder database be developed, containing information about the physical characteristics and chemical composition of commercially available black and smokeless powders. An agency-independent effort to develop a smokeless powders database did not emerge until 2009, when the National Center for Forensic Science (NCFS) in collaboration with the Scientific Working Group for Fire and Explosions (SWGFEX) began work on an internet-accessible database of analytical information on smokeless powders (http://www.ilrc.ucf.edu/powders/). The database opened in early 2011 with 100 entries of legacy powders, provided by Mr. Ronald Kelly (FBI-retired). Under this research grant: (1) records for an additional 600 powders were entered into the database, (2) 100 new powders were analyzed and their records entered into the database, (3) reference collections of the 100 smokeless powders were provided, free of charge, to 50 forensic laboratories that conduct smokeless powder exams and, (4) the data corresponding to the legacy and new records were utilized in research to establish evidentiary and investigative value associated with matching records returned from a search of the Smokeless Powders Database.
Book
1 online resource (xiii, 32 pages). Digital: text file; PDF.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
  • Introduction
  • How does the Army leverage social media?
  • Social media and information operations (IO)
  • Force structures, training & education, and equipment
  • Conclusion
  • Policy recommendations.
"The impact of social media on the media environment has been widely recognized; as has the ability of extremist and adversarial organizations to exploit social media to publicize their cause, spread their propaganda, and recruit vulnerable individuals. Supporting the growth of social media has been the phenomenal global increase in mobile telephone usage, and much of this increase is in areas where there are existing conflicts or conflicts are highly likely. These combined revolutions will increasingly have a direct impact on virtually all aspects of military operations in the 21st century. In doing so, social media will force significant changes to policy, doctrine, and force structures. This Letort Paper explores the implications of social media for the U.S. Army"--Publisher's web site.
Book
1 online resource (2 volumes).
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
"Examines how all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and five U.S. territories handled regulatory functions in four offense categories: banking and finance, environmental, worker safety, and Medicaid fraud. Volume I provides a series of tables of statutes authorizing regulatory enforcement options and compares each under the administrative, civil, and criminal categories of enforcement. Volume II describes the purpose of the statutes and enforcement options authorized by the statutes. Both reports reflect relevant statutes as of October 2016. Findings were based on an online review of state laws, as part of the 2014 State and Local White Collar Crime Program."--Publisher's home page.