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1. Amemiya, Takeshi [2017] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
In this oral history from 2017, the noted econometrician Takeshi Amemiya, Edward Ames Edmonds Professor of Economics, Emeritus, describes his early life in wartime Japan, his education in economics, and his years on the faculty of the Department of Economics at Stanford University. His wife, Yoshiko Miyaki Amemiya, briefly describes meeting Amemiya in Japan and her experience of life at Stanford. Amemiya begins by describing how Advanced Econometrics, a comprehensive text that is still in print three decades after its initial publication in 1985, evolved from material he used to teach the subject when he first came to Stanford in 1964. About that time, Amemiya explains, microdata on individual households and companies began to become available. Amemiya developed the statistical methods to analyze such data, and he was the first to write a textbook on the subject. Elaborating on his early years at Stanford, Amemiya explains that the faculty of the Department of Economics were assigned to different campus buildings, depending on their interests. He says this tended to deter collaboration until the department was consolidated at Encina Hall in the 1970s. Amemiya jumps ahead to discuss his later interests: sharing his delight in discovering the similarities of Greek and Japanese customs, including the gods they worshipped and their shrines to the dead. In addition, after traveling in China, he began to write poetry in Chinese. Turning to his childhood, Amemiya says he was only seven at the outbreak of World War II, which found his family in Lima, Peru, where his father worked as an executive for a Japanese shipping line. He describes being caught up in an exchange of Japanese and U.S. citizens living abroad at the outbreak of war. Although he was evacuated from Tokyo during the war, he experienced air raids in the area near Mount Fuji to which he had been sent. Amemiya describes his time at the International Christian University in Japan, Guilford College in North Carolina, and the American University in Washington, DC and admits to sometimes being distracted from his studies by American novels and golf. At Johns Hopkins University, Amemiya says a connection with econometrist Carl F. Christ set him on a career course that led him to join the faculty of the Stanford Department of Economics. Stanford then was more comfortable and less pressured than today, Amemiya says, offering his criticism of today’s practice of allowing students to evaluate professors, arguing that this encourages overly rehearsed teaching. Instead, he recalls putting new problems on the board and solving them with the students. Yoshiko Amemiya recounts how she met and married the young professor during a brief period when he left Stanford to teach in Japan. She also shares some of the challenges she experienced adapting to American culture, especially in feeling comfortable with the informality of the English language. Amemiya concludes by briefly describing the anti-Vietnam War protests at Stanford and recalling some memorable faculty rivalries on the tennis court.

2. Baxter, Charles H [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
Charles H. “Chuck” Baxter, a biology lecturer emeritus at Stanford University’s Hopkins Marine Station in Monterey, talks about his role both as a teacher and as a key participant in several endeavors, including the creation of the Monterey Bay Aquarium, which have had a deep and lasting impact on both the area and the general public’s perception of our oceans. He begins the interview discussing his background, most notably how a chance invitation to go diving in the Pacific Ocean opened his eyes to the wonders of underwater ecosystems` and caused him to change his major at UCLA from engineering to zoology. From there he traces a path from his graduate work in Ted Bullock’s lab to teaching the undergraduate zoology lab to his recruitment as a lecturer in the Stanford University Department of Biology. Baxter explains the circumstances that resulted in the transfer of his teaching duties to the Hopkins Marine Station and his relocation to the Monterey area. He recalls fondly the community of faculty, staff, and students at the marine station in the mid 1970s that made it such a special place to work. Baxter discusses his classes and the undergraduate research projects he assisted with, including one that resulted in two undergraduates publishing one of the first papers to show the effects of greenhouse gases on the distributions of ocean communities. Beyond his academic life at Hopkins, Baxter relates the notable projects he and his colleagues put into motion. He talks about how the Monterey Bay Aquarium came to be, relating key aspects of the aquarium’s construction, including the kelp forest tank, the aviary, and preservation of the beached grey whale skeleton that now hangs in the reception hall. Peppered throughout the interview are anecdotes about David Packard, who along with his wife, Lucille, was a chief funder of the project. He explains the diving and recording technologies that were central to the formation of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) and the media production company Sea Studios Foundation--organizations in which he played an active role. Finally, Baxter recounts the organization and deployment of the Sea of Cortez Expedition and Education Project, which retraced the 1940 journey of John Steinbeck and Ed Ricketts, and how conversations with his fellow passengers led to his involvement in Stanford’s holistic biology course and his current interest in cognitive science research.

3. Bryson, Arthur E [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
Arthur E. Bryson, Jr., a professor emeritus in the Stanford University Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics, discusses his research and teaching career in aeronautical engineering and his contributions to the fields of flight mechanics and automated control. Bryson begins with a discussion of his childhood in Illinois, recalling impressions of his father’s work as an investment banker in Chicago, his education in the Winnetka Public Schools, and the impact of a high school math teacher on his life path. He describes the beginning of his undergraduate career at Haverford College, which was interrupted by World War II and his participation in the Navy’s V-5 program. He talks about his eventual training assignment at Iowa State College and describes how he met his future wife, Helen Layton, there. The ensuing years found Bryson stationed at the Alameda Naval Station, working in repair and maintenance, and he describes some of his experiences there. Bryson then speaks about his short stint as a paper manufacturing engineer working for the Container Corporation of America and as an aeronautical engineer at United Aircraft, where he began working with wind tunnels. In the late 1940s, Bryson migrated to California to pursue a master’s degree in aeronautical engineering with the help of the GI Bill. He describes his advisor, Hans W. Liepmann, and relates how at Liepmann’s invitation, and with the help of a fellowship from Hughes Aircraft, he stayed on at Cal-tech, completing his PhD in 1951. An important turning point in Bryson’s career was an encounter with Harvard professor Howard Wilson Emmons, who was assigned to be Bryson’s office mate while Emmons was on a short assignment at Hughes. Bryson relates the circumstances that led Emmons to ask him to join the faculty at Harvard as an assistant professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering in 1963. He offers a short account of departmental and family life and his research and consulting work while at Harvard, and notes that the increasingly contentious atmosphere surrounding the Vietnam War was one of the factors that led him to accept an invitation to join the Stanford engineering faculty in 1968. Bryson describes some of the opportunities and challenges of his new role as the chair of the Department of Applied Mechanics, and later the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. He comments on his approach to teaching engineering and working with graduate students, recalls his work on Waves in Fluids and some of the other films in the Fluid Mechanics Films series, and relates stories about the anti-Vietnam War protests on campus. He concludes the interview with comments on the Gravity Probe B project and reflections on recent directions in biomechanical engineering and flight mechanics.
Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
In this oral history, Jean (Fetter) Chu, who served as Dean of Undergraduate Admissions at Stanford for seven years, discusses the relationship between admissions and athletics at the university. Chu begins with an account of her own athletic career at Oxford University, playing “attack” on the varsity “net ball” team--a basketball forward in American English. She says it was a highlight of her time at Oxford, where women’s sports were not regarded as highly as men’s teams. She describes the distinction between men’s and women’s sports by noting that male athletes were awarded a Blue letter, while women got a half-letter or Half Blue. At Stanford, Chu found herself in the athletics spotlight when she was named Dean of Undergraduate Admissions in 1984. Athletics coaches and alumni were extremely concerned that having a woman--and a British woman who had a PhD in physics--in the admissions role would negatively affect the athletic program. Chu recalls that one faculty member even felt the need to take her aside to explain--unnecessarily, of course--what the Pac-10 was. Chu describes her great respect for the athletic coaches at Stanford as well as her determination to admit only students she was confident would succeed academically. That resolve, she says, led her to refuse admission to prized basketball recruit, Chris Munk. Her decision led directly to the angry resignation of basketball coach, Thomas Davis. She recalls the wave of criticism she received and reviews the factors she weighed when making her decision. Chu turns from the Munk incident to describe her strong belief in the need to maintain the integrity of the admissions process. She provides a sense of the constant observation she was under from coaches, high school counselors, faculty, and alumni; the unfounded rumors that tended to swirl around the admissions process at Stanford; and both the opposition and support she experienced in the role. She describes the important role that the admissions liaisons to the Department of Athletics played in screening potential recruits and addresses concerns that these staff members might become too closely personally with coaches they befriended. The emotional agony of the admissions decision-making process, she confesses, and the changes it was making in her personal outlook, were important factors in her decision to resign the position. She credits faculty athletic representatives with helping her navigate the occasionally stormy seas and discusses her service on a committee that selected football coach Denny Green. Chu concludes with some kudos for the many star athletes who spent time at Stanford and shares some remarks and anecdotes related to the Stanford Band.

5. Chu, Jean H. (Staff, 2016) [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
In this oral history, Jean H. Chu (formerly Jean H. Fetter) discusses her twenty-five-year career at Stanford University where she served as Dean of Undergraduate Admissions, as assistant to two university presidents (Richard W. Lyman and Gerhard Casper), and in other administrative capacities. Chu begins with an account of her childhood in Wales during World War II, when German bombings demolished nearby Swansea and frequently sent her scrambling for shelter. Raised by a great-aunt and great-uncle, she recalls how her youthful interest in mathematics and physics was fostered at a rigorous all-women’s high school. Her excellence there helped gain admission to Oxford University’s all-women’s college, St. Hugh’s. In vivid detail, Chu recounts her experiences as one of six women, compared to 120 men, studying physics at Oxford. She was awarded a first in physics, among the best in her class. During her Oxford years, she met and married American Alexander (Sandy) Fetter (now Professor Emeritus of Physics at Stanford), and she discusses accompanying him to successive faculty appointments at Harvard, Berkeley, and finally Stanford. Describing life as a faculty wife and mother of small children, she recalls a brief job with William Shockley that led to a teaching position and then assistant professorship in physics at San Jose State. Turning to her employment at Stanford, Chu discusses her work with David Halliburton of the English Department on two grant-funded projects that she used to promote recruitment of women in sciences. She credits the broad perspective of Stanford that she gained during that project with helping her win appointment as assistant to Stanford President Richard W. Lyman. She recalls a heavy workload filtering the barrage of mail and in-person complaints brought to the president. Described as a “cog between big wheels,” she says, she learned about how the university operated at the highest level. Chu offers a brief account of her time as Associate Dean of Graduate Studies and Research under Jerry Lieberman where she oversaw the recruitment of women and minorities into graduate programs at Stanford and worked to develop grievance procedures for graduate students. Much of the oral history involves the many challenges she faced as Dean of Admissions. She describes the conflict she confronted between those who supported recruiting “well-rounded” students and others who favored “angular” students (“nerds” with extraordinary talents). Chu tells how she enabled the Department of Mathematics and later the departments of Music, Art, Drama, and Dance to review outstanding applicants in their fields, using the model created for athletes. She explains other policies she initiated and provides a detailed description of the review process, recounting some unusual cases as well as special efforts to recruit minorities and women. Chu outlines her service on the search committee that selected Gerhard Casper to be the new university president and the circumstances that led her to accept the role as his assistant. She contrasts her experiences as assistant to Lyman and Casper. Concluding her remarks, Chu recalls her experiences with her second husband, Steven Chu, when he received the Nobel Prize in physics.

6. Clark, Eve V [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
Eve V. Clark, Richard W. Lyman Professor of Humanities and an internationally known linguist, reviews her life journey from the United Kingdom to the United States. Clark begins by discussing her childhood in Britain, emphasizing her relationship with her sister, and her early education. Clark recounts traveling with her family, reflecting particularly on her time in France and the impact that learning the French language at a young age has had on her. She then describes her time at the University of Edinburgh and her time studying abroad in Aux-en-Provence and Barcelona. Clark then discusses how her interest in linguistics developed, accrediting the year-long phonetics course she had previously completed and her decision to attend the Linguistics Institute at the University of California Los Angeles. Clark describes meeting her husband, Herb, completing her PhD, and coming to Stanford. Clark comments on her experience as an academic couple and on how she managed having a career and a family. Clark talks extensively about her research in language acquisition, describing past studies she has conducted and textbooks she has produced. She then details her work with undergraduates, the classes she has taught, and her time serving on multiple advisory boards. Clark then describes in more detail her time at Stanford, recounting how the Linguistics Department has evolved, the Loma Prieta earthquake, student discontent in the 1970s, the committees she had served on, and how being a woman has impacted her career, and her consciousness of the feminist movement. The interview concludes with Clark commenting on how Stanford can continue to cultivate a more hospitable environment for women and by reminiscing on how the students at Stanford, and their motivation and energy, has driven her decision to continue teaching at the university.

7. Dreisbach, Robert H [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
In this oral history, Robert H. Dreisbach, Stanford alumnus (AB Chemistry 1937) and Professor of Pharmacology, Emeritus, discusses growing up in Baker, Oregon. He touches on his father’s work on the farm, at a creamery, and as a grocer and his mother’s beekeeping, and he describes Boy Scout meetings and hiking trips with his troop. He discusses his undergraduate days at Stanford from 1933 to 1937, recalling attending dances, the El Capitan Eating Club, and serving as the manager of the Stanford baseball team. He recalls his chemistry and physics professors and describes how a talk at Stanford given by a researcher from the Department of Agriculture awakened his interest in pharmacology and helped to convince him to pursue the subject while in medical school at the University of Chicago. Dreisbach briefly recounts his experiences during World War II, which included working as an instructor at the Stanford Medical School and military service as a ward officer at Lovell General Hospital in Fort Devens, Massachusetts and at a hospital in the Panama Canal Zone. He describes the Stanford Medical School when it was located in San Francisco and provides his recollections of the rationale behind its move to campus, including Windsor Cutting’s involvement. He recounts the origins and evolution of his work, The Handbook of Poisoning and the way that poison control centers embraced the book. Dreisbach describes the expansion of the Pharmacology Department after Avram Goldstein arrived from Harvard University to assume its chairmanship and its move to the Stanford campus. He remembers Goldstein as a “go-getter” and relates how he secured space in the basement of the Stanford Museum for a laboratory. Dreisbach explains how concern about smog and air pollution led him to pursue research and writing on environmental issues. An avid hiker, he closes the interview, which was conducted on the eve of his 100th birthday, by offering advice for longevity--keep climbing summits.

8. Drekmeier, Charles [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
Charles Drekmeier is Professor of Political Science, Emeritus at Stanford University. He came to Stanford in 1958 and spent almost forty years teaching at the university during an era of great social and political change. In this interview, Drekmeier discusses his academic training with Talcott Parsons and others, his interests in political theory and social thought, the development of the Stanford Program in Social Thought, and civil rights and anti-Vietnam War activism on the Stanford campus during the 1960s and 1970s. Drekmeier touches briefly on his hometown of Beloit, Wisconsin where his parents owned a drugstore. He describes his first exposure to college at the University of Chicago where he was admitted to the innovative two-year bachelors degree program conceived by Robert Maynard Hutchins. Drekmeier describes meeting communist political activists there, his struggle to acclimate, and his eventual transfer to the University of Wisconsin. He discusses his induction into the army towards the end of World War II and relates stories from basic training and other postings. Upon returning to the University of Wisconsin after the war, Drekmeier’s interest in political science and sociology grew. He explains how he took an internship with the State Department to study the European Recovery Program and details his travels through Europe. He relates his decision to pursue a master’s degree in history at Columbia University and describes some of the professors he worked with there, including Henry Steele Commager. Drekmeier discusses his early academic career, first at the University of Wisconsin where he taught economics and political geography in the Integrated Liberal Studies Program (ILS), and then at Boston University where he taught human relations and political economy before receiving a Fulbright scholarship to study the history of law and politics in India. He relates stories from his time in India and explains how he came to enroll in a graduate program at Harvard where he worked as a research assistant to Talcott Parsons. Drekmeier describes the circumstances that led him to join the Stanford faculty. He couches the discussion of his teaching experience at Stanford and his reputation as a “liberal” professor in terms of the social and political movements of the time. He describes the twenty-four hour teach-in hosted by the campus Peace in Vietnam committee in 1965 and discusses the ideas and impact of Bruce Franklin, a tenured professor of English who was fired from Stanford for his role in anti-war campus protests. Drekmeier discusses the development and evolution of a social science honors seminar called Social Thought and Institutions. This long-running program studied a single topic, such as “community,” for an entire academic year. Drekmeier credits his students with sharing fresh ideas that affected his perspective. Drekmeier explains his first public appearance as a “political figure” during a campus event about the civil rights movement. He recalls the day of John F. Kennedy’s assassination and the emotional address he gave to students that evening, and he describes how he became involved in the Resurrection City program at the request of students who desired to participate in the encampment in Washington DC. He concludes the interview with reflections on Stanford as an institution and the story of the Drekmeier Drugs bowling team.

9. Edwards, Mark W [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
Mark W. Edwards, an emeritus professor in the Department of Classics, spent over two decades serving the Stanford community. Edwards influenced numerous undergraduate and graduate students at Stanford and at other institutions in the United States and Canada. The focus of this two-part interview is the breadth of Edwards’s teaching career and the evolution of his research interests, particularly his work related to Homer. Edwards’s academic success in classical languages began at his English grammar school during his teenage years. He explains how he chose Latin as his major at Bristol University and how, a few years later, he returned to Bristol to earn a second honors degree in Greek. Edwards pursued a master’s degree soon after, where he worked with Thomas Webster of University College London and began studying Homeric formulae. Both Webster and Homer proved to be strong influences on Edwards’s future career. After a year in London, Edwards moved to the United States as a Fulbright fellow at Princeton University and then accepted his first teaching position at Brown University. Edwards describes his impressions of mid-century America, the works of literature he covered in his classes, and his experience as a resident chaperone on campus. Edwards also discusses how not getting tenure at Brown prompted him to apply for a teaching position at Queen’s University in Ontario, Canada, where he taught for another seven years. He draws interesting comparisons between the two countries based on his student interactions, and provides more detailed information and examples about his work on Homeric formulae that developed over those fourteen years. In the second interview, Edwards describes his years at Stanford as a professor, department chair, and researcher. Edwards found many of his former mentors teaching at Stanford when he arrived in 1969. He taught a variety of Classics graduate courses and non-major undergraduate classes. Edwards also served as department chair for seven years. He discusses the highs and lows of the experience and details the two programs he was most proud of implementing: the Stanford in Greece program, which subsidized student travel in Greece, and the Webster Fund, named in honor of his mentor Thomas Webster, which supported the exchange of guest lecturers between Stanford and University College London. Over the course of thirty plus years teaching Homer’s work, Edwards widened his research to include studying the poet’s type scenes and story patterns. He personally appreciated those moments when Homer broke from the pattern and revealed more of himself. To share this expertise, Edwards wrote a well-received reader for the general public called Homer: Poet of the Iliad. After retiring early from Stanford, Edwards accepted an appointment at the University of California, Santa Cruz to teach Homer to undergraduates in Greek. Edwards concludes his interview with thoughts about how classics remains relevant in modern society. He points to his retirement reading group that recently studied the Odyssey. Through vicarious experience, Edwards feels the retirees gained knowledge from studying the text and relating it to the experiences they had during and after World War II. Edwards remarks that he takes great pleasure in these new interactions with classical texts he has studied his entire career.

10. Flippen, James H [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
In this oral history, Stanford alumnus James H. Flippen (MD 1945) recounts family stories and the journey that led him to attend medical school at Stanford University. He relates details of student life at the Stanford School of Medicine when it was located in San Francisco and recalls incidents from his residency at Stanford. He briefly describes his fellowship at Boston Children’s Hospital where he learned the replacement transfusion technique for treating hemolytic anemia of the newborn, which he later taught to physicians on the West Coast. He also provides an account of his service in the United States Navy when he was assigned to a clinic for treating tropical skin diseases located at the Tanforan Race Track in San Bruno, California. Flippen describes his work as a private practitioner of pediatrics in Palo Alto and his work as a clinical professor in the pediatric cardiology clinic at Stanford. He recounts his role in leasing land from Stanford in cooperation with other physicians in order to build a cluster of medical offices near Stanford hospital known as the Medical Plaza. He describes his work as the regional chairman of the Accident Prevention Committee of the American Academy of Pediatrics and his advocacy of legislation requiring that cars be equipped with seatbelts, that homes have smoke detectors, and that teenagers who drove while intoxicated receive stiff penalties. He concludes the interview by discussing his determination of the cause of a tragic drowning incident, a phenomenon he branded “silent drowning.”

11. Gilly, William F [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
William Gilly is a biology professor at Stanford’s Hopkins Marine Station whose research has contributed to our basic understanding of electrical excitability in nerve and muscle cells in a wide variety of organisms ranging from brittle stars to mammals. In this interview, Gilly discusses the path his science career has taken, including measuring gas diffusion across membranes, patch clamping giant squid neurons, and retracing John Steinbeck and Edward Ricketts’s expedition to the Sea of Cortez. Beyond his research, he explains how he has incorporated exploration and discovery into his courses and science outreach. Gilly begins the interview with his affinity for Uncle Wiggly, an aged but adventurous rabbit from a series of children’s stories, and describes his own independent forays into the natural surroundings of Allentown, Pennsylvania when he was a child. He explains his family’s technical background and how his interest in ham radio led him to pursue an electrical engineering degree at Princeton. Gilly details the independent undergraduate research project that landed him in a neurophysiology lab, shifted his focus to biology, and, despite inconclusive results, earned him an award from his engineering department. He describes his acceptance to the PhD program at Washington University in St. Louis and how, when his advisor died suddenly, a network of friends and acquaintances from Yale University, the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, and the University of Washington’s Friday Harbor Laboratories enabled him to complete his research and thesis in physiology and biophysics and to begin a postdoctoral fellowship in Clara Franzini-Armstrong’s lab at the University of Pennsylvania, studying the role of ion channels in electrical signaling in squid axons. This expertise, Gilly explains, resulted in his appointment at Stanford, working at Hopkins Marine Station where he could collect squid specimens directly from the bay. Citing his experiences both as a scientist and fisherman, he opines on the ways that the Monterey Bay has and has not recovered. After discussing the bureaucratic challenges of achieving tenure, he launches into stories about the classes he has taught, including a technical training course on patch clamping squid neurons, a holistic biology class that involved field research in Baja California Big Sur and the Salinas River, and the Steinbeck Summer Institutes program for primary educators. A central text to many of these courses is Steinbeck and Ricketts’s Sea of Cortez: A Leisurely Journal of Travel and Research, and Gilly discusses how he and several colleagues organized their own expedition based on Steinbeck and Ricketts’s sea voyage. He details preparations and sponsorship for the trip and mentions how the original expedition’s ship, the Western Flyer, is being restored for outreach and possible future trips. Gilly talks about his other outreach work, including donating giant squid to primary classrooms for his Squid4Kids program, trying to mount a critter-cam on a squid for National Geographic TV, and serving as a National Geographic Expert on their Lindblad cruises in the Sea of Cortez. He concludes the interview by discussing his current project helping to set up a community-run marine lab in Santa Rosalía, Baja California Sur, Mexico and how it might be used for environmental research and education.

12. Lawrence, Mark C [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
In this oral history, Mark C. Lawrence, Chief Engineer at Stanford’s radio station KZSU for over fifty years, describes growing up in Gridley, California, his physician father’s purchase of a farm, his experience working with farm machinery, and how that experience led to a lifetime of building things with his hands and to an interest in radio. He recalls how that interest led him to volunteer at KZSU when he arrived at Stanford as a freshman in 1963 and eventually to work as its Chief Engineer to this day. Lawrence recounts the history of KZSU, its gradual expansion, the development of its physical facilities, and its broadening areas of interest. He discusses how the focus of the Department of Electrical Engineering shifted from radio electronics to computing and the subsequent impact on the station. He recalls his employment at the Carnegie Institution of Washington Department of Plant Biology on the Stanford campus after his graduation, taking the first two undergraduate computer science courses in the 1960s, and working eventually in the Computer Center from 1972 to 2004 when he was laid off as a consequence of reorganization and the university’s move away from its homegrown mainframe computing system. Along the way Lawrence describes Stanford’s steam tunnels through which the radio station’s transmission lines ran, the campus telephone system, the implementation of ASSU special assessment fees that he helped create, and the experience of broadcasting live via KZSU the speeches given by public figures, including Mikhail Gorbachev, Barack Obama, Al Gore and the Dalai Lama, on Stanford campus.

13. Macovski, Albert [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
Albert Macovski, the Canon USA Professor of Engineering, Emeritus has been affiliated with Stanford since 1960, first as a research engineer and staff scientist at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) and then as a faculty member with expertise in medical imaging and a joint appointment in the Department of Electrical Engineering and the Department of Radiology. In this oral history, Macovski talks about his family background and growing up in New York City in the 1930s. Among other things, he describes his father’s work as a jeweler, the impact of the Great Depression on his family, attending the New York World’s Fair, and his interest in ham radio. Macovski recalls his studies in electrical engineering at City College of New York during the immediate post-war period and the significant change in his life occasioned by meeting his future wife, Adelaide “Addie” Paris. He describes obtaining a job at RCA Laboratories upon graduating from college and what it was like to work in the early television industry, including trying to solve problems related to synchronization and color television broadcasting. Macovski talks about pursuing his master’s degrees at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and then working as an assistant professor there. He relates the factors that influenced his decision to accept a job at SRI: a desire to get his PhD, wanting to be where the action in electronics was, and the favorable climate. Describing the environment at SRI in the 1960s, Macovski discusses his work on the Nimbus weather satellite and his invention of the single tube color camera. He describes the process of earning his PhD through Stanford’s Honors Coop Program, his dissertation on holography, and a post-doctoral fellowship from the National Institutes of Health that allowed him to study in the Department of Radiology at the University of California San Francisco. He goes on to describe joining the faculty at Stanford and his varied research projects, including work on ultrasonic array, recording images of the beating heart, and developing techniques to differentiate between hard and soft tissue. He also discusses a project to image the coronary arteries. Macovski recounts the story of how a sabbatical year offered him the chance to study magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to work with Godfrey Hounsfield at the Medical Physics Department of Hammersmith Hospital. He describes obtaining an MRI system from General Electric and the process of getting it installed on campus. Macovksi also discusses his approach to working with graduate students and offers reflections on the process of commercializing technology and obtaining patents. He concludes the interview with comments on new directions in the field of medical imaging and on his decision to endow a chair in the Electrical Engineering Department.

14. Meier, Linda R [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
In this oral history, Linda Meier, a Stanford University alumna, former trustee, and a dedicated university leader and benefactor, provides anecdotal details and reflections on some of the iconic Stanford fundraising and outreach events that she spearheaded. She also discusses her student days at Stanford, the essential elements of her career in philanthropy and fundraising, and lessons learned during a lifetime committed to volunteer leadership. Born and raised in Los Angeles, Meier credits her interest in volunteerism to her parents, her study of sociology at Stanford, her strong motivation, and a desire to make an impact. In high school, she volunteered at inner-city camps and became involved in student government and the honor society. As a young mother, Meier volunteered with the Junior League, as well as with her children’s schools and extracurricular activities. Meier’s first major engagement with Stanford was in the formation and growth of the Cardinal Club, a group devoted to funding scholarships for women athletes. She describes the hurdles the group overcame, its innovative and successful fundraising events, and the strong impact it made. Meier describes other fundraising and outreach efforts in which she worked alongside some of the most important leaders in Stanford history, serving as either the chair or co-chair of events and programs. Such engagements include the 100th Big Game auction, the Centennial Campaign, the Stanford Challenge, and the Campaign for Undergraduate Education. She also describes her service on the Stanford Athletic Board, the boards of the Stanford University Hospital and the Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital Stanford, and the Stanford University Board of Trustees. Through these experiences, Meier developed the concept of “friend raising,” essentially deepening the awareness and enthusiasm of alumni and volunteers around the world. She proved the positive connection between “friend raising” and fundraising, through such programs as Leading Matters, Think Again, and Humanities Forum. In addition, former colleagues recruited Meier to serve on the boards of local organizations, where for many years she was often a board’s only female member. Some of these enterprises include University National Bank and Trust, California Water Service Company, and the Peninsula Center for the Blind and Visually Impaired now called Vista. Meier built a reputation for producing successful events, creating a reliable constituency, and bringing women into leading advisory roles. Meier comments that particularly challenging experiences, such as the Buck Club’s resistance to the Cardinal Club, lead to the best opportunities to be creative and have the most impact. She also deems it essential to choose strong personalities to work on purposeful ventures, in order to be successful. Meier credits the university presidents, provosts, the administrative personnel in the Alumni Association and Development Office, as well as her fellow volunteers, for the opportunities she was afforded. She feels privileged to have worked on great causes with such dedicated people over the course of her career.

15. Noddings, Nel [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
Nel Noddings, the Lee Jacks Professor Emerita of Education at Stanford University’s Graduate School of Education, is a philosopher and educational researcher best known for her ethics of care theory which she described in her 1984 book, Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education. Her care theory and educational philosophy is informed both by her graduate studies at Stanford in the 1970s and her long career, beginning in 1949, as a teacher and school administrator. She returned to Stanford as an associate professor in 1979 where, in addition to teaching and her research, she ran the Stanford Teacher Education Program (STEP) and filled in as acting dean of the Graduate School of Education in the mid 1990s. In this interview she speaks about her professional and research career, set against the backdrop of her life as a wife and mother of ten during a time of tremendous cultural shifts in the country. Noddings begins the interview describing her working-class upbringing in New Jersey during the Great Depression and World War II. She confides that as a seven-year-old, she identified more with her school than home, despite being raised in a loving and safe environment. She reminisces about her elementary and high school experiences, the classes she took, the school culture, and uses her academic training to assess how progressive they really were. She contrasts the substance of her high school education with the redundancy in her undergraduate education at Montclair State Teachers College. Noddings describes her relationship with her husband, James Noddings, whom she met in high school, their courtship that began after they graduated, and early marriage after he returned from military service in Korea. She explains the ease with which they became parents and the reasons, after having three biological children, that they chose to adopt several Korean-American children. Noddings describes the educational and professional compromises she had to make because of motherhood and her husband’s profession. To balance this out, she shares several examples when her children participated in the educational programs she administered, as well as recollections of when the family moved so she could pursue her career goals. She spends some time describing her first teaching position in Woodbury, New Jersey, where she spent three years with the same class of middle school students, and how this unique experience profoundly shaped her thinking on teaching, educational administration and academic research. She gives the example of how later, during the civil rights movement, if a protest or other incident affected the lives of her student, she’d take time off from her math lesson plan to help them understand and process the events. Noddings explains how she initially approached her graduate school at Rutgers and Stanford as a means to advance as a school administrator. While she found pursuing math at Rutgers frustrating because of gender imbalances in the department, she describes her time at Stanford as transformative. Noddings explains why she switched from the educational administration track to philosophy of education after taking two philosophy courses. She notes how the learning and collaborative environment at Stanford supported her research and focus. She discusses her thesis on constructivism in education and how her care theory became entwined with feminist theory. She expands on education theory, her frustration with the current emphasis on standardized testing, the pros and cons of high concept-based math programs like “new math,” the difficulties of teaching atheism, and the benefits of a more holistic approach to education. Noddings describes the jobs she held after graduating: an academic position at Penn State, consulting in the Menlo Park area, and directing the Laboratory School at the University of Chicago. She explains how she landed the position of associate professor at Stanford running the STEP program in 1983 and later the Upward Bound summer program. She gives her impression of these programs and the changes they underwent. She describes her roles in Stanford’s administration: serving as the first female acting dean of the School of Education (now Graduate School of Education), working on Stanford’s Institutional Review Board for human subject research and serving on the faculty senate. It was in this last position that she argued for leniency towards a group of students who had barricaded themselves in the Dean’s office, an episode for which she explains her reasoning and results of her efforts. She describes her work after leaving Stanford, serving as president for the Philosophy of Education Society and chairing the ethics committee for the American Educational Research Association. She closes the interview by discussing her life after returning to the East Coast and the direction of her current research.

16. Pizzo, Philip A [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
In his 2016 oral history, Philip A. Pizzo, MD, former dean of Stanford’s School of Medicine, describes the long career in pediatrics and AIDS treatment that led him to California in 2001 and his mission to reinvigorate the university’s medical establishment. Pizzo begins his narrative in New York City, where he was the first in his working-class family to graduate from high school. Like many first-generation Americans, Pizzo says, his family encouraged him to become a doctor and to “become something.” His reading, especially the book Microbe Hunters by Paul de Kruif and biographies of great scientists and thinkers, also drew him to the field of medicine, as did the historical context of the Vietnam War. Recounting the challenges and contributions of his years at Fordham University, the University of Rochester Medical School, and the elite Boston Children’s Hospital, Pizzo outlines how his career embraced both research and clinical practice in pediatric oncology and infectious disease. Pizzo describes receiving a summons to join the National Institutes of Health in 1973 and devotes considerable attention to his two decades there and especially to the young patients who influenced the direction of his research. First came ten-year-old Ted DeVita, who was confined to an isolation room because of a severely compromised immune system. That relationship, Pizzo points out, prepared him for the challenges of HIV and AIDS. By then the NIH chief of pediatrics, Pizzo explains that research in pediatric AIDS led to the development of continuous infusion therapy, which “made a pretty big splash” at the International AIDS Meeting in Stockholm in 1988. His growing reputation drew Elizabeth Glaser to Pizzo and NIH. He describes treating her two AIDS-infected children, as well as collaboration with Elizabeth and his admiration for her work as founder of the Pediatric AIDS Foundation. Seeking a new direction for his career as he turned 50, Pizzo discusses his brief return to Boston Children’s Hospital before Stanford made an irresistible offer in 2000. Pizzo recalls the long deliberative process that resulted in his acceptance of the job as dean of the School of Medicine. The school and the two hospitals were experiencing considerable divisiveness at the time because of the failed merger with the University of California, San Francisco. Healing the wounds of that venture is what Pizzo sees as his first major challenge at Stanford, and he identifies the faculty’s revolt against the UCSF project as the most important element in its failure. He recounts in detail the issues involved in reconciling the School’s academic and clinical perspectives and his successful efforts to rebuild faculty morale and create an agenda to focus their energy toward the future. Pizzo also discusses outreach to the other academic schools at Stanford, resulting in the founding of the Department of Bioengineering. He describes initiatives that brought needed resources to the medical facilities and revitalized the way they worked together, including the beginning of the institutes, diversity initiatives, and fundraising programs. Pizzo declares himself proud of the community that now exists in Stanford’s medical establishment, the care it provides to patients, and the national recognition it has achieved.

17. Robertson, Channing R [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
Channing R. Robertson is an emeritus professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Stanford University. The main focus of this two-part oral history is Robertson’s over four decades of research, teaching, and service to the university. The interview also covers Robertson’s youth in Los Angeles, his college experience at the University of California, Berkeley, and the career choices that eventually led him to Stanford. Robertson discusses his family background and notes that he was the first member of his family to graduate from college. Teachers and counselors provided the information and advice that guided his interest in science and pursuit of a college education. In an entertaining manner, Robertson describes his undergraduate experience at UC Berkeley, which involved declaring a chemical engineering major, flunking out of his ROTC requirement, losing his Regents Scholarship, and living with a nocturnal roommate. Robertson discusses the impact current events had on the career choices he made after graduating from UC Berkeley. The Vietnam War draft proved to be an important influence on his decision-making process. Robertson details the influential period from 1965 to 1970, in which he enrolled in the inaugural class of the PhD program in chemical engineering at Stanford, accepted a research position at an oil company after graduation, and returned to Stanford as faculty to help grow the department and form a new bioengineering program. Robertson reflects on the nascent state of the department upon his arrival and its transformation. He attributes the rapid rise of the department from blank slate to top-tier to the small core faculty’s commitment to seek out promising young scholars and allow their interests to grow and evolve. Robertson’s own interests grew and shifted over time, as seen by the wide variety of contributions he made both to the department and the university. He discusses developing new course options and teaching methods and creating Bio-X, an interdisciplinary entity through which scholars can interact, share resources, design joint projects, and fund new ventures in the area of bioengineering. He also discusses his contributions as an expert witness, a consultant for legal issues, and an entrepreneur. To end the session, Robertson discusses his personal feelings about his time at Stanford. He likens the experience to a fairytale, a story that he could not have imagined as a young man who chose engineering for lack of a better alternative. He concludes his session by advising future scholars to remain open to new opportunities.

18. Rosenberg, Saul A [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
Saul A. Rosenberg pioneered treatments for lymphoma and other cancers in the early 1960s, and his work helped to establish the field of medical oncology. He collaborated with Henry Kaplan to run the first random clinical trials for lymphoma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Rosenberg gives a candid interview about the setbacks and serendipitous opportunities in his pursuit of a medical career in internal medicine and oncology that culminated in a decades-long career at the Stanford University School of Medicine. He begins the interview by describing his background as a poor Jewish kid growing up in Cleveland, Ohio, the first of his family to go to college. Rosenberg recounts his plan to enter medical school at the age of 18 to avoid being drafted for World War II and the personal and bureaucratic obstacles that caused him to drop out as an undergrad. This apparent misfortune, he explains, led to a lab technician position in Hymer Friedell’s Atomic Energy Medical Research Project, which in turn gave him unique and sought-after skills in radiology and put him in contact with numerous researchers when he did enter medical school at Western Reserve University. He recalls another seeming setback--being drafted to serve as a marine doctor--which interfered with his pursuit of a PhD but made him realize that he wanted to practice clinical medicine. He discusses his residency at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, where he was made chief resident and spent a year researching lymphomas in Lloyd Craver’s lab. He goes into detail about an influential paper he wrote: a statistical analysis of 1,269 lymphomas, which was made possible by an early IBM punch-card computer. Rosenberg discusses how, despite these accomplishments, he had a difficult time finding an academic position that would allow him to work with radiotherapies and internal medicine until Kaplan and Halsted Holman made a place for him at Stanford where he eventually held professorships in both medicine and radiation. He began working at Stanford just as the medical school was relocating from San Francisco to the Stanford campus. He describes how his hospital experience was put to use by Holman as they developed their clinical program and how he eventually took over the role of physician-in-chief. He opines about what made the new medical school such a delight to work in and how more recent changes have diminished it. He talks about job offers he did not take and the failed merger with the University of California San Francisco, as well as his position on Stanford’s Advisory Board. Rosenberg then goes into detail about the work that made him famous: his collaboration with Kaplan that revolutionized lymphoma--and specifically Hodgkin’s lymphoma--treatments, turning a terminal diagnosis to one of hope. He describes how Kaplan’s cutting- edge linear accelerator, as well as his own clinical expertise, improved patient care and allowed them to begin randomized clinical trials. Rosenberg muses on his personal relationship with Kaplan and mentions Kaplan’s children and their careers. Finally, Rosenberg deliberates about what he feels are his real contributions: his children, his students, and his patients. He describes himself as a tree trunk that supports the beautiful leaves and flowers that are his former students’ accomplishments and careers. And he takes humble joy in knowing that through his medical administrations, his patients have lived longer, and often remarkable, lives.

19. Scott, W. Richard [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
In this oral history, W. Richard Scott, Stanford Professor of Sociology, Emeritus, discusses his early years in Kansas, graduate education at the University of Chicago, his academic career in the Stanford Department of Sociology, and his pioneering work in the field of organizational studies. Scott describes his childhood and teenage years in Parsons, Kansas. He cites the stability provided by his father’s work at the post office during the Great Depression, his mother’s influence, and childhood bouts with asthma as formative factors in his life. He discusses his extracurricular interests during high school, his two years of junior college in Parsons, and his early interest in becoming a minister. Scott describes entering Kansas University as a junior, discovering his love of sociology, and earning his PhD at the University of Chicago, where he worked with Otis Dudley Duncan, Peter Blau, and Everett Hughes Cherrington. Scott recalls his path to joining the Stanford Department of Sociology in 1959 shortly after Fred Terman had recruited Sanford Dornbusch as a promising junior faculty member to chair and “restart” the department, which had been granted additional billets to fill. He describes the highly collaborative nature of the department, as five newly-hired, young sociologists crafted the curriculum, designed a new graduate training program, and worked together on an NSF grant. By the end of the 1960s, Scott recalls, it felt like things were really happening academically at Stanford. Turning to his research on organizations, Scott recounts seeking out faculty from across the university who were studying different aspects of organizations. They formed a community, secured critical funding from the National Institute of Mental Health, and proceeded to develop an exciting new field of organizational studies. Organizational studies flourished at Stanford for twenty years and three of the most important theories in the field were developed here during that period. Describing the trajectory of his research, Scott explains that he has worked on widely divergent topics over his career: authority and control systems in multiple settings, the effectiveness and quality of care in hospitals, organizational structures in K-12 education, changing health care delivery systems, global infrastructure construction projects, and the San Francisco Bay Area system of higher education. He also mentions serving on government grant peer review panels for many years, an experience which he found intellectually rewarding. Scott, who won the H&S Dean’s Award for Distinguished Teaching in 1987, stresses the importance of teaching and extolls the virtues of the doctoral oral examination. He relates the thinking that went into the writing of his three core textbooks on organization studies and the influence the books have had. He comments on four of his most meaningful professional awards and reflects on some of the Stanford leaders he knew and admired: Dick Lyman, Al Hastorf, Ray Bacchetti, and Ken Cuthbertson. As an observer of Stanford as a bureaucracy for over fifty years, Scott notes a recent movement away from the collegial structure in which departments serve as the primary units, setting a disciplinary-centered agenda. Scott closes the interview by commenting on the benefits of living on the Stanford campus since 1962 and his active involvement with Avenidas Village, a system that supports seniors who want to stay in their own homes as they age.

20. Seaver, Paul S [2016] Online

Collection
Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program interviews, 1999-2012
Paul S. Seaver, Professor of Early Modern English History, Emeritus, begins his interview by discussing his childhood on his family’s dairy farm in a Quaker community in rural Pennsylvania. He discusses being a conscientious objector, refusing to register for the draft for the Korean War, and consequently serving time in prison in Danbury, CT. He recalls his years as an undergraduate at Haverford College and as a graduate student at Harvard University. He recounts his early career at Reed College in Portland, Oregon, and how he later came to Stanford University. He describes evolutions in the Stanford undergraduate curriculum related to the teaching of western civilization and changes in the faculty in the Department of History, as it slowly became more inclusive of women and minorities. He pays particular attention to the radicalism on campus during the civil rights movement and Vietnam War, and his involvement as a draft counselor, which causes Seaver to segue into further reflection on his time at Danbury penitentiary. Seaver comments on the exclusion of minorities in admission processes until 1964 when, with the hiring of a new dean of admissions, he immediately began to see changes in the student population. Seaver discusses his research for the book Wallington’s World and his fascination with working-class and urban life in seventeenth-century England. He briefly relates his research to the radicalization of societies more generally and comments on modern politics. He also touches on what he appreciates about his career at Stanford and raising his family in Palo Alto. Seaver concludes his interview by discussing his Jewish immigrant heritage, his parents’ early life and eventual conversion to the Quaker religion, and his father’s work with the American Friends Service Committee.