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Collection
Stanford Research Data
This data set is a compilation of the historical CMOS technology scaling data presented in the ITRS, journals, and conferences including IEDM and VLSI Technology from 1988 and onward. Chi-Shuen Lee, Jieying Luo, and H.-S. Philip Wong at Stanford University compiled the data; Thomas N. Theis at Columbia University provided the data originally compiled by Robert W. Keyes at IBM T.J. Watson Research Center and published in Figure 1 of Rolf Landauer's 1988 paper. The historical scaling trend of logic switching energy and integration density were published in Figure 1 and 2, respectively in the paper, "The End of Moore’s Law: A New Beginning for Information Technology" by Theis and Wong (see Related Published Work below for the full citation.
Collection
Stanford Research Data
We draw a random subset of $k$ rows from a frame with $n$ rows (vectors) and $m$ columns (dimensions), where $k$ and $m$ are proportional to $n$. For a variety of important deterministic equiangular tight frames (ETFs) and tight non-ETF frames, we consider the distribution of singular values of the $k$-subset matrix. We observe that for large $n$ they can be precisely described by a known probability distribution -- Wachter's MANOVA spectral distribution, a phenomenon that was previously known only for two types of random frames. In terms of convergence to this limit, the $k$-subset matrix from all these frames is shown to behave exactly like the classical MANOVA (Jacobi) random matrix ensemble. Thus empirically the MANOVA ensemble offers a universal description of spectra of randomly selected $k$-subframes, even those taken from deterministic frames. The same universality phenomena is shown to hold for notable random frames as well. This description enables exact calculations of properties of solutions for systems of linear equations based on a random choice of $k$ frame vectors out of $n$ possible vectors, and has a variety of implications for erasure coding, compressed sensing, and sparse recovery. Our results are empirical, but they are exhaustive, precise and fully reproducible. .
Book
1 online resource.
Platforms like Amazon Mechanical Turk have made it possible for hundreds of people to come together to produce creative work at massive scale. Complex work is often managed by breaking down a large task into smaller subtasks; the sub-results produced by these subtasks are combined to create the final result. Projects like the Johnny Cash Project, for example, asked workers to draw individual frames which were combined to create a reinterpretation of a music video. Another commonly used technique to manage crowdsourced work is to build a workflow that connects individual tasks through concretely defined inputs and outputs. By splitting a larger work into smaller parts that can be completed independently, these crowdsourced workflows can often accomplish work more quickly or accurately than an individual. However, these techniques can only be applied to certain kinds of work: the task must be divisible into independent subtasks, which often means that subtasks are designed to help accomplish a predetermined desired outcome. As a result, crowds have difficulty completing tasks with complex interdependent parts (such as writing stories or composing music), because modifying one section may require changes in other sections of the work. Rather than splitting complex work into independent steps, what if we could enable the crowd to engage in a creative process that looks more like that of an expert? By doing this, we may expand the crowd's ability to work together on complex creative projects. This dissertation takes inspiration from expert creative practices to design new crowdsourcing and social computing techniques for accomplishing complex creative work online. These techniques are developed through three systems: Ensemble, Mechanical Novel, and Mosaic. In Ensemble, I use the practice of developing and revising constraints to split the task of writing a short fiction between a leader (who defines constraints and goals for a story) and the crowd (who executes works based on these goals). Mechanical Novel expands on this by studying how crowds can define high-level goals for themselves, without needing a central leader to coordinate work. Lastly, Mosaic generalizes this idea of designing collaborative systems based on expert practices by exploring design affordances for an online community that values non-traditional success outcomes such as early work, failure, and experimentation. These systems demonstrate how expert creative practices can be built into the design of collaborative creativity support tools, and show how designing for exploration can result in better creative outcomes than just focusing on success.
Book
1 online resource (5 unnumbered pages). Digital: text file.
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
This is a draft memo submitted via the State Department's Dissent Channel and signed by an unknown number of US State Department Foreign Service officers and other US diplomats. The memo was a dissenting opinion in response to President Trump's executive order entitled, "Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States, " signed January 27, 2017 instituting a suspension of entry to the U.S. and issuances of visas for people from Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen. The order also temporarily suspends all refugee admission and indefinitely suspends refugee admissions from Syria. The State Department's Dissent Channel is a mechanism for employees to confidentially express policy disagreement, created in 1971 as a response to concerns within the Department over the government's handling of the Vietnam War. Authors of a memo submitted through the Channel, which is open to all regular employees of the State Department and USAID, may not be subject to any penalty or disciplinary action in response. Once a memo is submitted, the Secretary of State's Policy Planning Staff must acknowledge its receipt within two working days and will usually distribute it to the Secretary of State, the Deputy Secretary of State, the Under Secretary for Political Affairs, the Chairperson of the Open Forum, and, if the memo's author is employed by USAID, by the head of that agency as well. Taking into account the wishes of the author, the memo may also be distributed more broadly within the State Department and may be done so anonymously. The ultimate significance of the channel is that memos must receive a substantive response within 30-60 working days.
Book
1 online resource.
Is it legally and economically possible to resolve a large failing financial firm without either imposing systemic costs upon the broader economy or increasing banks' risk-taking incentives? This dissertation grapples with two facets of this question. The first chapter assesses a particular proposed resolution mechanism, a new Chapter 14 of the Bankruptcy Code, and applies it to the economic history of Lehman Brothers' case. It shows that, because the run on Lehman was driven by perceived insolvency, because that run was foreseeable, and because Lehman had sufficient long-term and subordinated debt, Lehman's would have been the type of case that Chapter 14 and other new recapitalization mechanisms are best structured to address. Chapter 14 would have imposed real losses on creditors, while also reducing aggregate losses by hundreds of billions of dollars. Expectations that short-term lenders and clients would be paid in full at maturity would have dramatically reduced the risk of runs and systemic costs. The second chapter undertakes to identify a market-based measure that can help to predict more precisely a large financial firm's distress and consequent need for resolution. The chapter demonstrates that a new measure of market perceptions of solvency, the "Solvency Ratio, " theoretically and empirically outperforms the existing measures of Distance to Default and CDS spreads when predicting distress at large financial firms. In a sample of 11 systemically important U.S. financial firms over the 2004-2013 time-frame, a rule based upon the Solvency Ratio performs remarkably well whereas one cannot construct a similar highly performing rule for either Distance to Default or CDS spreads. These results and others presented demonstrate that policymakers and investors would do well to track the Solvency Ratio in order to better understand when systemically important firms will require resolution in the future.
Book
1 online resource.
This two-part mixed methods study applies a dual processing model to explore the effects of digitally mediated empathy interventions on bias against marginalized groups, justice sensitivity, and helping behavior. Previous findings in the empathy literature suggest that while affective and cognitive empathy may be utilized to alter someone's perception of a marginalized group in a beneficial manner, the complex relationship between an individual and the technology they use may modify these effects and render previous findings incomplete. Results revealed that prompting affective or cognitive empathy in response to video stimuli did not elicit positive perspective-taking or decrease bias against these groups. For scales of homophobia that experienced significant interaction effects, the distraction and cued comment condition had the least amount of bias. Similarly, for the illegal alien scale, the distraction condition produced the least biased results. Findings from the justice sensitivity scales show that the empathy condition increased personal justice sensitivity, while those in the distraction condition experienced comparatively higher levels of "other-oriented" concern. These findings suggest that instead of eliciting positive feelings about the marginalized groups, the empathy-specific prompts activated biases against the individual. Additional findings for the effects on helping behavior suggest a more nuanced outcome that does not correlate with outcomes expected from previous psychological research. All of the results suggest that digitally mediated video stimuli designed to elicit empathy for marginalized groups may have the opposite effect due to the complex nature of the interaction between online media and culture.
Collection
Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) Collection
This report lays out specific recommendations for the next administration’s cybersecurity policy. It identifies the policies, organizational improvements, and resources needed for this. It builds on the 2009 Commission on Cybersecurity for the 44th Presidency, a foundational document for creating a strategic approach to cybersecurity. In the eight years since that report was published, there has been much activity, but despite an exponential increase in attention to cybersecurity, we are still at risk and there is much for the next administration to do. We are still at risk because the intricate structure of networks we have built is based on technologies that are inherently vulnerable. In addition, the enforcement of laws in cyberspace is intrinsically difficult, and some countries refuse to cooperate in prosecuting cybercriminals. Nations are also unwilling to forsake the benefits of cyber espionage or military cyber operations. Domestically, the conflicting political imperatives that lead to stalemate for many initiatives also slow progress on cybersecurity. The goals of cybersecurity strategy remain the same: to create a secure and stable digital environment that supports continued economic growth while protecting personal freedoms and national security. The requirements to implement that strategy also remain the same: central direction and leadership from the White House to create and implement a comprehensive and coordinated approach to policy, organization, and resourcing. These goals and requirements set the objectives, but cybersecurity is no longer a “greenfield” for policy development. The next administration will inherit a work in progress. Our starting point is that it should build on and improve what has already been done. In this, it faces five major issues: 1. It must decide on a new international strategy to account for a very different and dangerous global security environment. 2. It must make a greater effort to reduce and control cyber crime. 3. It must accelerate efforts to secure critical infrastructures and services and improve “cyber hygiene” across economic sectors. As part of this, it must develop a new approach to securing government agencies and services and improve authentication of identity. 4. It must identify where federal involvement in resource issues such as research or workforce development is necessary, and where such efforts are best left to the private sector. 5. Finally, it must consider how to organize the United States to defend cyberspace. Clarifying the role of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is crucial, and the new administration must either strengthen DHS or create a new cybersecurity agency.
Book
1 online resource.
Distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation is growing rapidly due to renewable-energy policies, business innovation, and new technology. The variability and volatility of solar generation causes challenges when operating the grid. Given the current physical infrastructure and operational policies this results in limits on distributed PV generation. What the limit is to the penetration of PV is studied by analyzing the behavior of distributed PV generation and a model of the load. We investigate how to represent the power output from distributed PV generation. We propose a reduced-form approach for constructing maximum PV power curves, which describe the maximum power from a group of PV systems at any time instance. Unlike a structural approach used typically by PV providers, the reduced-form approach requires no information about configuration or specification of each PV system in the group. We show how a grid operator can use maximum power curves in various applications such as finding a simple limit to PV installation, defining volatility distinctly from variability, and constructing a short-term PV power forecast system. A key requirement is a model of the load. Analogous to the maximum power curve, a load reference curve is proposed with a simple definition and shown to improve the performance of a short-term load forecast. Lastly, a simulation of the grid operation using our forecast systems and a typical set of existing infrastructures is performed to measure the risk of demand-supply imbalance. The maximum level of distributed PV installation given an acceptable level of risk is established. Options of adding additional ancillary services and implementing PV curtailment to increase the maximum level of distributed PV installation are also investigated.
Book
1 online resource.
The partial differential equations governing multiphase flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media are highly nonlinear. Therefore, in the fully implicit finite-volume method, solving the algebraic systems at each time step is challenging and accounts for the majority of the simulation cost. We present numerical schemes and solution strategies applicable to general-purpose simulation that reduce the computational cost by drastically improving the nonlinear convergence. In the discretized transport problem, the interfacial approximation of the functions of saturation -- i.e., phase relative permeability and capillary pressure -- has a strong impact on the strength of the nonlinearities. We generalize and analyze an approximation method tailored to the underlying three-phase flow physics and based on Implicit Hybrid Upwinding (IHU) that results in fast nonlinear convergence. This is achieved with a differentiable and monotone numerical flux for two- and three-phase transport obtained from separate evaluations of the viscous, buoyancy, and capillary fluxes. Then, using IHU, we construct an efficient physically based discretization scheme for the mixed elliptic-parabolic problem in which the flow is coupled to the transport of species. The resulting IHU scheme is more general and more efficient than the saturation damping methods previously used to improve the nonlinear convergence. In addition, to correctly represent the trapping mechanisms associated with capillary heterogeneity, the proposed finite-volume scheme accounts for spatially discontinuous relative permeabilities and capillary pressure at the boundary between different rock types. Specifically, we design a robust numerical method that combines IHU with discrete transmission conditions between rock regions to improve the accuracy of the flux approximation compared to the standard Phase-Potential Upwinding (PPU) scheme. Importantly, we present a mathematical analysis that places this new fully implicit finite-volume scheme on a strong theoretical foundation. The mathematical study is supported by challenging heterogeneous two- and three-phase numerical tests. These computational examples demonstrate that the IHU scheme results in significant reductions in the number of nonlinear iterations compared to the commonly used PPU scheme for viscous-, buoyancy-, and capillary-dominated flow. Finally, we extend a nonlinear solution strategy in which the flow variables (pressure) and the transport variables (saturation and composition) are updated sequentially. The saturation and composition update relies on a reordering of the control volumes exploiting the directionality of the transport problem and is done locally in decreasing order of potential. We show that this procedure leads to a drastic improvement in the nonlinear convergence properties compared to Newton's method with damping for immiscible, Black-Oil, and compositional problems with strong buoyancy.
Book
1 online resource.
Regeneration is a process that requires tightly regulated proliferation, differentiation, and tissue remodeling. Classical model organisms such as C. elegans, D. melanogaster, and M. musculus have limited regenerative capabilities therefore we present the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, which provides an ideal system to study the role of stem cells in regeneration. This immortal adult organism boasts excellent regenerative capabilities driven by a stem cell population called neoblasts. The neoblast population is the only mitotically active cell type in planarians and can be easily manipulated without concern for embryonic requirements. This unique model also allows for the study of human embryonic stem cell genes in a simpler in vivo system. Thus S. mediterranea offers the opportunity to accelerate the studies and understanding of stem cell biology and regeneration in the environment of a living organism. GATA transcription factors are DNA binding proteins that are well-known master regulators of development. Through the activation and repression of transcription, these factors direct cellular differentiation toward lineage specification. Here we used loss-of-function experiments to understand the role of the GATA4/5/6 subfamily in the differentiation of neoblasts. S. mediterranea has a single homolog of mammalian GATA-4, -5, and -6, Smed-gata4/5/6, which is expressed primarily in the planarian intestine and in some neoblasts. Smed-gata4/5/6 knockdown results in perturbed homeostasis and regeneration, eventually leading to planarian death. Loss of Smed-gata4/5/6 disrupts intestinal differentiation and also affects non-intestinal lineages. During late time points of regeneration, Smed-gata4/5/6 loss leads to decreased neoblast proliferation and gene expression of neoblast subpopulations. These data support the conserved role of Smed-gata4/5/6 in intestinal differentiation and indicate the intestine may act as a neoblast niche. Our preliminary work on Experimental Evolution through irradiation exposure shows a sub-lethal dose of irradiation eliminates neoblast expression after 24 hours and expression recovery occurs after 3-4 weeks. This demonstrates S. mediterranea is a malleable model organism that can be used to study the link between regeneration and cancer.
Book
1 online resource (ii, 160 page)
Collection
Government Information United States Federal Collection
On December 7, 2015, the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) , Civil Rights Division, Special Litigation Section, and the United States Attorney’s Office for the Northern District of Illinois, jointly initiated an investigation of the City of Chicago’s Police Department (CPD) and the Independent Police Review Authority (IPRA). This investigation was undertaken to determine whether the Chicago Police Department is engaging in a pattern or practice of unlawful conduct and, if so, what systemic deficiencies or practices within CPD, IPRA, and the City might be facilitating or causing this pattern or practice. Our investigation assessed CPD’s use of force, including deadly force, and addressed CPD policies, training, reporting, investigation, and review related to officer use of force. The investigation further addressed CPD ’s and IPRA’s systems of accountability both as they relate to officer use of force and officer misconduct, including the intake, investigation, and review of allegations of officer misconduct, and the imposition of discipline or other corrective action. We also investigated racial, ethnic, or other disparities in CPD’s force and accountability practices, and assessed how those disparities inform the breakdown in community trust
Collection
Stanford Research Data
This a snapshot of the NeuroVault.org database. It include all public collections of statistical maps deposited in NeuroVault as long as they were linked to an external publication. This snapshot is an attempt to improve chances of long term persistance of data deposited in NeuroVault.org.

13. Philosophy Talk. Reparations [2017] Online

Sound recording
1 digital audio file
Collection
Philosophy Talk, 2002-2014
The United States brutally enslaved African Americans for its first hundred or so years of existence. For the next hundred years, black Americans were lynched, deprived of basic rights, and widely discriminated against. Now, while there are still certainly racial injustices to deal with, how are we to respond to the racial injustices of the past? Does time really heal all wounds? Could it ever be legitimate to compensate the descendants of slaves for burdens they themselves did not bear? Likewise, why should the descendants of slave-owners be made to pay for crimes they did not commit? John and Ken welcome Michael Dawson from the University of Chicago, author of Not in Our Lifetimes: The Future of Black Politics.
Sound recording
1 digital audio file
Collection
Philosophy Talk, 2002-2014
Our annus horribilis is over. But what ideas and events took shape in 2016 that challenged our assumptions and made us think about things in new ways? Join John, Ken, and their special guests as they celebrate the examined year with a philosophical look back at a year of triumph and defeat. The Year in Athletic Agony and Ecstasy with journalist David Johnson The Year in Political Disruption with philosopher Debra Satz The Year in Technology and Labor with political scientist Margaret Levi.
Sound recording
1 digital audio file
Collection
Philosophy Talk, 2002-2014
With 43.3 million Americans burdened with a total of $1.3 trillion in student loan debt, high school students thinking about attending college are faced with a daunting decision. Should they risk joining the ranks of the indebted in order to get a college degree? The answer depends on the value of a college education. Are college graduates happier, or better prepared for life? Is it the government’s job to ensure that investing in college is worth it for students? Should public colleges be free? Or would that decrease their value? And would studying philosophy increase or decrease the value of a college education? John and Ken get collegial with outgoing Stanford president John Hennessy, in a program recorded live at De Anza High School in Richmond, California.
Book
1 online resource.
This dissertation explores two major lines of research concerning ultrafast electron dynamics in atoms and molecules. The first part investigates the dynamics of photoionization in intense laser fields on the attosecond time scale. A new technique using a weak probing field at half the frequency of the strong ionizing laser field reveals attosecond delays in the above-threshold ionization process. We observe the influence of the combined Coulomb-laser potential on the spectral phase of the photoelectron. In the second part, an experiment which imaged the uncoupling of electron motion from the molecular frame in rotating molecules is described. A coherent wave packet in the 4f Rydberg manifold of molecular nitrogen is created and its motion is probed in time. This allows for a direct observation in the time domain of a non-Born-Oppenheimer regime, known as the l-uncoupling regime, that up until now has only been inferred from spectroscopic data.
Book
1 online resource.
The world's ever-increasing needs for energy, currently fulfilled primarily by the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels, are demanding development of more efficient and cleaner combustion processes, which ultimately requires improved knowledge of fundamental combustion kinetics. Present in the combustion of most hydrocarbon fuels, aldehydes are important intermediate species that hold key information to such knowledge. Recognizing the critical role of aldehydes in combustion research, the current study presents (1) an advanced aldehydes diagnostic system for use in combustion environments, (2) a set of improved rate constant measurements for several key reactions of aldehydes, and (3) a toolbox that will facilitate future kinetics studies of aldehydes. A system of continuous-wavelength (CW) laser absorption diagnostic methods was developed for the quantitative measurement of formaldehyde (CH2O) and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) in shock tube kinetic studies. Investigation of the high-temperature CH2O spectrum showed that the optimal wavelength for CH2O detection using commercially available lasers was near 2896 cm−1. By exploiting the structural difference between the absorption spectra of CH2O and that of broadband interfering species, the current study proposed a two-color (2895.92 and 2895.60 cm−1) interference-free detection scheme for CH2O sensing in combustion environments. A third color (32601.10 cm−1) was also added to develop a UV/IR detection scheme for combined CH3CHO/CH2O measurements. Aldehyde absorption cross-sections at all three colors were measured behind reflected shock waves over a wide range of temperatures (600--1800 K) and pressures (0.8--3.6 atm), with an uncertainty of ±5%. The diagnostic system was then validated in two well-controlled experiments, and demonstrated in shock tube pyrolysis experiments of 1,3,5-trioxane, CH2O and CH3CHO. The rate constant of acetaldehyde thermal dissociation, CH3CHO (+M) = CH3 + HCO (+M), was measured behind reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1273 - 1618 K using a sensitive CO diagnostic. Example simulations of existing reaction mechanisms updated with the current rate constant values demonstrated substantial improvements with regard to the acetaldehyde pyrolysis chemistry. The rate constant of the H-abstraction reaction of formaldehyde (CH2O) by hydrogen atoms (H), CH2O + H = H2 + HCO, was also studied behind reflected shock waves using the same CO absorption diagnostic, over temperatures of 1304--2006 K. These experiments were carefully designed to maintain relatively constant H radical concentrations, which significantly boosted the measurement sensitivity of the target reaction and suppressed the influence of interfering reactions. Compared to previous studies, the current work has significantly reduced the measurement uncertainty. The overall rate constants of the H-abstraction reactions of 10 different aldehydes, namely formaldehyde (CH2O), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), propionaldehyde (C2H5CHO) and n-butyraldehyde (n-C3H7CHO), isobutyraldehyde (i-C3H7CHO), n-valeraldehyde (n-C4H9CHO), isovaleraldehyde (i-C4H9CHO), trans-2-pentenal (C2H5CHCHCHO), trimethylacetaldehyde ((CH3)3CCHO) and benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO), by hydroxyl radicals (OH), were studied behind reflected shock waves at temperatures of 958 -- 1391 K, using UV laser absorption at 306.69 nm. The current study reported the first direct rate constant measurement for C2 and higher aldehydes + OH at temperatures above 1000 K. To aid future kinetics research in shock tubes, a novel toolset of advanced laser absorption diagnostics, namely shock-tube-integrated cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), was also developed in the current study. This CEAS technique utilized high reflectivity mirrors directly mounted on the shock tube to enhance the effective optical pathlength in shock tube/laser absorption measurements by factors of about 50 - 90, thereby greatly improving the species detection limits in shock tube kinetics studies. A CW laser CEAS method was explored and applied to ultra-sensitive CO detection in rate constant measurements for the acetone thermal dissociation reaction, CH3COCH3 (+ M) = CH3 + CH3CO (+ M), over 1004-1094 K. A pulsed-laser CEAS was also explored in the current study to develop an improved laser absorption diagnostic for CH3 at 216.62 nm. Example application of this diagnostic was demonstrated in rate constant measurements for the thermal dissociation reaction of methane, CH4 + M = CH3 + H + M over 1487 - 1866 K. This CEAS toolset should prove very useful in future shock tube kinetics studies, including but not limited to, the studies of aldehydes.
Book
1 online resource.
The slow acquisition speed of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hinders its wider adoption as a diagnostic and research tool. In recent years, simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) MRI has been proposed to accelerate MRI scans. The main focus of this dissertation is to develop a generic and accurate data reconstruction framework, termed hybrid-space SENSE, for SMS MRI. To evaluate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss in the reconstruction, analytical geometry-factor maps are derived. Under the proposed framework, a matrix-decoding Nyquist ghosting correction method is further developed to conduct slice-specific Nyquist ghosting correction for SMS echo planar imaging. This dissertation also presents work on three other aspects of SMS MRI: one is designing undersampling strategies that generate incoherent interslice aliasing; another is de-signing autocalibrating undersampling schemes; the third aspect is designing signal excitation radiofrequency (RF) pulse with reduced peak amplitude.
Collection
Undergraduate Theses, Department of Biology, 2015-2016
Noncoding RNAs can orchestrate eukaryotic gene expression programs through diverse yet only partially understood mechanisms. One noncoding RNA in particular, 7SK, is known to repress mRNA transcription by blocking RNA polymerase II activity at gene promoters. Recent studies suggest that 7SK may be physically associated with chromatin, the target of RNA polymerase II, but the functional significance of this association has not been explored. Here we discover novel roles for 7SK at distinct genomic loci and find that it coordinates the functions of multiple protein complexes. 7SK binds both promoters and enhancers across the genome. At enhancers, mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation reveal a direct, previously unknown interaction between 7SK and a major eukaryotic chromatin remodeling complex called BAF. Depletion of 7SK disrupts the BAF complex, causing aberrant transcription as well as increased DNA damage signaling at thousands of enhancers. These results suggest that 7SK has a multifaceted role in controlling gene regulation. By scaffolding at least two separate nuclear protein complexes at distinct genomic elements, 7SK provides a conceptual framework for how noncoding RNAs may operate as versatile regulators of information flow through the nucleus.

20. A Case for Outdoor Education [2016] Online

Collection
Mapping the Arguments Collection
Outdoor Learning (OL) and Outdoor Adventure Education (OAE) provide a learning environment conducive for improving self-esteem, teaching interpersonal personal skills, creating an environmentally aware community, and serve as an experiential learning technique for underprivileged children. Even though OL and OAE can be costly, the benefits are clear and private and public funding for these programs must increase.