Phillips, Craig B., Brown, Kerry, Green, Chris, Toft, Richard, Walker, Graham, and Broome, Keith
PLoS ONE. 8/6/2020, Vol. 14 Issue 8, p1-21. 21p.
CRUCIFERAE, HOST plants, BUTTERFLIES, URBAN gardens, and LEPIDOPTERA
In May 2010 the large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), was discovered to have established in New Zealand. It is a Palearctic species that—due to its wide host plant range within the Brassicaceae—was regarded as a risk to New Zealand's native brassicas. New Zealand has 83 native species of Brassicaceae including 81 that are endemic, and many are threatened by both habitat loss and herbivory by other organisms. Initially a program was implemented to slow its spread, then an eradication attempt commenced in November 2012. The P. brassicae population was distributed over an area of approximately 100 km2 primarily in urban residential gardens. The eradication attempt involved promoting public engagement and reports of sightings, including offering a bounty for a two week period, systematically searching gardens for P. brassicae and its host plants, removing host plants, ground-based spraying of insecticide to kill eggs and larvae, searching for pupae, capturing adults with nets, and augmenting natural enemy populations. The attempt was supported by research that helped to progressively refine the eradication strategy and evaluate its performance. The last New Zealand detection of P. brassicae occurred on 16 December 2014, the eradication program ceased on 4 June 2016 and P. brassicae was officially declared eradicated from New Zealand on 22 November 2016, 6.5 years after it was first detected and 4 years after the eradication attempt commenced. This is the first species of butterfly ever to have been eradicated worldwide. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Martin, Sara L., LaFlamme, Michelle L., James, Tracey, and Sauder, Connie A.
Botany. 2020, Vol. 98 Issue 7, p393-399. 7p.
CAMELINA, CRUCIFERAE, SEEDS, PLANT DNA, ANDROGRAPHIS paniculata, and MUSTARD seeds
It is important to understand the probability of hybridization and potential for introgression of transgenic crop alleles into wild populations as part of pre-release risk assessment. Here we completed bidirectional crosses between the emerging crop, camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] and its weedy relative, ball mustard [Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv.]. Ball mustard is a self-compatible annual that produces hard ball-like seeds similar to canola or mustard seed in size and shape. A total of 1593 crosses were completed and collected with camelina as the maternal parent, while 3253 crosses were successfully collected in the reverse direction. Putatively hybrid seedlings were screened with flow cytometry and species-specific nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) markers. Three plants had DNA contents close to expectations for hybrids, but only one of these, formed on camelina, had the expected ITS markers. This hybrid exhibited low fertility, and neither self-pollination nor backcrossing produced viable progeny. The other two plants, formed on ball mustard, had high pollen and seed fertility and were identified as ball mustard neoautotetraploids. Therefore, the hybridization rate between camelina and ball mustard is relatively low at one in 20 000 ovules pollinated when camelina is the maternal parent. However, autotetraploids may form frequently in ball mustard, and tetraploid populations may exist in nature. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]