English Language Teaching, v12 n2 p1-16 2019. 16 pp.
Course Content, Teaching Methods, Second Language Learning, Second Language Instruction, Language of Instruction, Educational Policy, Language Usage, Language Teachers, Teacher Collaboration, Code Switching (Language), Integrated Curriculum, Teacher Attitudes, Multilingualism, Multiple Literacies, Faculty Development, Foreign Countries, Longitudinal Studies, Spanish, Romance Languages, Social Sciences, English (Second Language), and Spain
In Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), the design of a language policy at school level is not only bound up with the number of languages used for learning and the number of hours devoted to teaching those languages, but also with the fact that language becomes specialised in relation to the subject, which impacts on the methodology used. These are the reasons for both language teachers and subject teachers to work together in design and implementation; and for the teachers' use of a translanguaging-based approach to language learning (San Isidro, 2018). Previous research has dealt with teachers' opinions (Calvo & San Isidro, 2012; Coonan, 2007; Infante et al., 2009; Pladevall-Ballester, 2015) on the difficulties of curriculum integration and its effects on both the different languages of instruction and the learning of content; or on the difficulties of language and content integration. However, methodology-oriented research on teachers' views and work in specific contexts is direly needed so as to gain a deep insight into the methodological commonalities that make CLIL what it is. Our qualitative study is focused on a two-year monitoring of teachers' (N=6) views on CLIL implementation in a rural multilingual setting in Galicia. The teachers were monitored by means of interviews held between 2012 and 2014. After being trained, they took part in a CLIL project based on curriculum integration with two different groups of students. The findings reported showed that 1) teachers' initial views on CLIL implementation turned more positive over the two years; 2) teachers believed that CLIL provides a very good framework for the development of pluriliteracies; 3) their views regarding content learning in CLIL turned more neutral in the course of the two years; and 4) teachers stressed the need for methodology-oriented training.
International Journal of Instruction, v12 n1 p479-492 Jan 2019. 14 pp.
Foreign Countries, Second Language Learning, English (Second Language), Language Proficiency, Language Tests, Scores, Social Sciences, Natural Sciences, College Students, Listening Comprehension Tests, Listening Comprehension, Reading Tests, Reading Comprehension, Comparative Analysis, Academic Achievement, Outcomes of Education, Test of English as a Foreign Language, International English Language Testing System, Test of English for International Communication, and Indonesia
Students of social and natural sciences are expected to achieve different learning outcomes because they employ different language learning strategies and are exposed to different vocabulary. This research was aimed at finding evidence from empirical data to determine whether the differences in learning outcomes are statistically significant. The data for this research were collected by administering the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) to 179 students from four state universities in Aceh, the northernmost province of Indonesia. The results of the test were analysed based on the components in each subtest. There are three parts in the listening comprehension section, 14 aspects in the structure and written expression section, and six skills in the reading comprehension section. The results show that significant differences were only found in part A (the short talk section) of the listening comprehension part and in the main idea skill section in the reading comprehension part. Students of natural sciences performed better when listening to a short academic talk, while social science students had a better general comprehension of non-discipline specific academic texts.