Human Pathology: Case Reports, Vol 21, Iss , Pp 200407- (2020)
Amyloidosis, Gallbladder, Spheroid structure, Transthyretin, Pathology, and RB1-214
An 83-year-old woman underwent cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis. Histopathologically, the superficial area of the gallbladder was covered by necrotic tissue, and the deeper wall structure was obscured by marked fibrosis and severe inflammatory-cell infiltration. Many small, amorphous, eosinophilic spheroid bodies with a central cavity were identified in the superficial area. They were confirmed as amyloid deposits as they were positive under Congo red staining and exhibited yellow-green birefringence under polarized light. Amyloid deposition was also identified on the vessels in the deeper fibrous layer. Immunohistochemically, these amyloid deposits were positive for transthyretin antibodies, and CD34-positive cells were focally identified at the center of the deposits. These spheroid-type deposits, thought to originate from the affected vessels, formed a characteristic deposition pattern that can be used as a diagnostic sign indicating latent systemic amyloidosis in the gallbladder with severe degeneration that would otherwise interfere with accurate histopathological identification. As we were unable to find any other reported similar cases, this case report of spheroid-type transthyretin-derived amyloidosis in the gallbladder seems to be the first.
Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon, Vol 2, Iss 3, Pp 77-82 (2018)
umbilical diverting stoma, rectal resection, laparoscopy, Diseases of the digestive system. Gastroenterology, and RC799-869
Objective: The use of laparoscopic surgery for rectal disease is expected to provide good cosmetic benefits for patients postoperatively. However, this expectation is significantly reduced when a diverting ileostomy is created. We present a new technique that reduces the size of the skin wound by constructing a diverting ileostomy in the umbilicus. This procedure, diverting umbilical ileostomy (umbistoma) does not require special tools for its construction and closure. Methods: Twenty-nine patients underwent treatment with umbilical diverting stoma, including five women and 24 men, with a mean age of 70 years (range: 40-88 years). At the time of ostomy closure, a new umbilicus was formed by subcutaneously suturing the wound to the fascia. In addition, we did not close the new umbilical upper and lower spaces, so as to allow open drainage of the healing wound. Results: All procedures were completed successfully without any perioperative complications. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the umbilical diverting stoma could provide improved safety and cosmetic advantages in laparoscopic rectal resection.
Journal of the Anus, Rectum and Colon, Vol 1, Iss 3, Pp 84-88 (2017)
stoma, laparoscopic stoma creation, single-incision laparoscopic surgery, Diseases of the digestive system. Gastroenterology, and RC799-869
Objectives: This study aimed to compare open stoma (OS) creation with laparoscopic stoma (LS) creation considering the operation time, blood loss, time of oral intake, and complications. We also compared multiport LS and single-incision laparoscopic stoma (SILS) creation. Methods: We reviewed the demographic data, diagnosis, indications, operation time, blood loss, time of oral intake, operative procedure, and complications of 50 patients who underwent stoma creation between April 2014 and April 2016. Results: The mean blood loss was significantly lower in the LS group (7.85±18.4 ml) than in the OS group (38.1±73.2 ml; P=0.02). There were no statistical differences between the groups in terms of the operation time (LS, 72.1±32.7 min; OS, 61.2±31.2 min; P=0.23) or time of oral intake (LS, 1.0±0 days; OS, 1.91±2.71 days; P=0.17). Peristomal skin problems occurred in 11 patients (47.8%) in the OS group and 5 patients (18.5%) in the LS group. There were no statistically significant differences between the SILS and multiport LS groups, considering the operation time, amount of bleeding, and time of oral intake. Conclusions: LS is comparable with OS in terms of operation time and time of oral intake and may cause lesser blood loss. Considering its advantages, LS is a useful approach for patients requiring biopsies or intra-abdominal inspection. SILS is a minimally invasive technique, suitable for patients in whom the stoma site is preoperatively decided.
Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons and form myelin sheaths in the central nervous system. The development of therapies for demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, is a challenge because the pathogenic mechanisms of disease remain poorly understood. Primate pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes are expected to help elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of these diseases. Oligodendrocytes have been successfully differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells. However, it is challenging to prepare large amounts of oligodendrocytes over a short amount of time because of manipulation difficulties under conventional primate pluripotent stem cell culture methods. We developed a proprietary dissociated monolayer and feeder-free culture system to handle pluripotent stem cell cultures. Because the dissociated monolayer and feeder-free culture system improves the quality and growth of primate pluripotent stem cells, these cells could potentially be differentiated into any desired functional cells and consistently cultured in large-scale conditions. In the current study, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes were generated within three months from monkey embryonic stem cells. The embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes exhibited in vitro myelinogenic potency with rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Additionally, the transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitor cells differentiated into myelin basic protein-positive mature oligodendrocytes in the mouse corpus callosum. This preparative method was used for human induced pluripotent stem cells, which were also successfully differentiated into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes that were capable of myelinating rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Moreover, it was possible to freeze, thaw, and successfully re-culture the differentiating cells. These results showed that embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells maintained in a dissociated monolayer and feeder-free culture system have the potential to generate oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes in vitro and in vivo. This culture method could be applied to prepare large amounts of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes in a relatively short amount of time.