Haidy El-Azzamy, Nandor Gabor Than, Andrea Balogh, Roberto Romero, Yi Xu, Christopher LaJeunesse, Olesya Plazyo, Zhonghui Xu, Theodore G. Price, Zhong Dong, Adi L. Tarca, Zoltan Papp, Sonia S. Hassan, Tinnakorn Chaiworapongsa, 김종재, and Nardhy Gomez-Lopez
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine, 51(3), pp.264-283 May, 2017
2020 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Aided Education (ICISCAE) Information Systems and Computer Aided Education (ICISCAE), 2020 IEEE 3rd International Conference on. :241-245 Sep, 2020
Physics - Applied Physics, Physics - Instrumentation and Detectors, and Physics - Optics
Millimeter-wave (mmWave) technology continues to draw large interest due to its broad applications in wireless communications, radar, and spectroscopy. Compared to pure electronic solutions, photonic-based mmWave generation provides wide bandwidth, low power dissipation, and remoting through low-loss fiber. However, at high frequencies, two major challenges exist for the photonic system: the power roll-off of the photodiode, and the large signal linewidth derived directly from the lasers. Here, we demonstrate a new photonic mmWave platform by combining integrated microresonator solitons and high-speed photodiodes to address the challenges in both power and coherence. The solitons, being inherently mode-locked, are measured to provide 5.8 dB additional gain through constructive interference among mmWave beatnotes, and the absolute mmWave power approaches the theoretical limit of conventional heterodyne detection at 100 GHz. In our free-running system, the soliton is capable of reducing the mmWave linewidth by two orders of magnitude from that of the pump laser. Our work leverages microresonator solitons and high-speed modified uni-traveling carrier photodiodes to provide a viable path to chip-scale high-power, low-noise, high-frequency sources for mmWave applications. Comment: 9 pages, 5 figures
Zhao Chen, Yuxuan He, Zhikuo Liu, Juan Carlos Suárez Serrato, and Daniel Yi Xu
NBER Chapters, 2020.
This paper documents facts about the structure of business taxation in China using administrative tax data from 2007 to 2011 from the State Taxation Administration. We first document the importance of different business taxes across industries. While corporate income taxes play an important role for manufacturing firms, these firms also remit a large share of their tax payments through the value-added tax system, through the excise tax system and through payroll taxes. Gross receipts taxes play an important role for firms in other industries, leading to spillovers that may affect the overall economy. Second, we evaluate whether the structure of China’s tax revenue matches its stage of development. A cross-country comparison of sources of government revenue shows that China collects a high share of tax revenue from taxes on goods and services and a high share of income tax on corporations. Finally, we study whether firm-level differences in effective tax rates can be an important source of allocative inefficiencies. Decomposing the variation in effective tax rates across firms, we find that government policies, including loss carry-forward provisions and preferential policies for regional, foreign, small, and high-tech firms, have significant explanatory power. Nonetheless, while effective tax rates vary along a number of dimensions, tax policy does not explain the large dispersion in the returns to factors of production across firms.(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
Wei-yi Guo, Li-jun Sun, Hong-rui Dong, Guo-qin Wang, Xiao-yi Xu, Zhi-rui Zhao, and Hong Cheng
Kidney International Reports, Vol 6, Iss 2, Pp 404-413 (2021)
complement activation, FHR-5, IgAN, Diseases of the genitourinary system. Urology, and RC870-923
Introduction: Immunoglobulin A nephrology (IgAN), characterized by co-deposition of IgA and complement components, is an activation of complement system involved disease. Factor H–related protein 5 (FHR-5) antagonized the ability of factor H to negatively regulate C3 activation, which leads to overactivation of the alternative pathway. Here we explore the relationship of intensity of glomerular FHR-5 deposition and severity of IgAN. Methods: Renal staining of FHR-5 was detected by immunofluorescence, and plasma FHR-5 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 56 patients with IgAN. The relationship of intensity of glomerular FHR-5 and clinical and pathologic features of these patients were further analyzed. Results: Glomerular staining for FHR-5 was observed in a predominantly mesangial pattern in 32 biopsy specimens (57.1%). FHR-5 co-deposited with IgA and C3c in glomerular mesangial and capillary area in patients with IgAN. Patients with IgAN with Oxford endocapillary hypercellularity (P = 0.007) and segmental glomerulosclerosis (P = 0.049) presented with greater intensity of FHR-5 deposition. There were more cases with 2+ and 3+ FHR-5 staining in cohorts of 2+ and 3–4+ mesangial C3 deposition (P = 0.034) and IgA deposition (P = 0.019). Interestingly, the glomerular FHR-5 depositions were more abundant in male versus female in patients with IgAN (P = 0.002). Besides, circulating FHR-5 levels were elevated in patients with IgAN compared with healthy control subjects. Plasma FHR-5 levels were significantly higher in patients with mesangial hypercellularity at diagnosis than those with nonmesangial hypercellularity. Conclusions: We found that glomerular intensity of FHR-5 deposition could indicate the severity of histologic lesions of IgAN.
Xiaoshan Peng, Qingxiong Zhu, Jing Liu, Mei Zeng, Yue Qiu, Chunhui Zhu, Yibing Cheng, Yibo Zhou, Yi Xu, Minxia Chen, Zhengwang Wen, Yiping Chen, Rui Li, Jianning Tong, Qingwen Shan, Daojiong Lin, Shouye Wu, Zhiqiang Zhuo, Caihong Wang, Shiyong Zhao, Zhenghong Qi, Xiaofeng Sun, Bieerding Maihebuba, Chunmei Jia, Huiling Gao, Shuangjie Li, Yu Zhu, Chaomin Wan, and the Collaborative Working Group of the Pediatric Subgroup of the China Society of Infectious Diseases
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, Vol 10, Iss 1, Pp 1-10 (2021)
Bacterial meningitis, Pediatric, Bacterial pathogens, Antimicrobial resistance, Infectious and parasitic diseases, and RC109-216
Abstract Background Pediatric bacterial meningitis (PBM) remains a devastating disease that causes substantial neurological morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, there are few large-scale studies on the pathogens causing PBM and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns in China. The present multicenter survey summarized the features of the etiological agents of PBM and characterized their AMR patterns. Methods Patients diagnosed with PBM were enrolled retrospectively at 13 children’s hospitals in China from 2016 to 2018 and were screened based on a review of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microbiology results. Demographic characteristics, the causative organisms and their AMR patterns were systematically analyzed. Results Overall, 1193 CSF bacterial isolates from 1142 patients with PBM were obtained. The three leading pathogens causing PBM were Staphylococcus epidermidis (16.5%), Escherichia coli (12.4%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (10.6%). In infants under 3 months of age, the top 3 pathogens were E. coli (116/523; 22.2%), Enterococcus faecium (75/523; 14.3%), and S. epidermidis (57/523; 10.9%). However, in children more than 3 months of age, the top 3 pathogens were S. epidermidis (140/670; 20.9%), S. pneumoniae (117/670; 17.5%), and Staphylococcus hominis (57/670; 8.5%). More than 93.0% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to cefoxitin, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone/sulbactam, amikacin and carbapenems, and the resistance rates to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ceftazidime were 49.4%, 49.2% and 26.4%, respectively. From 2016 to 2018, the proportion of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolates (MRCoNS) declined from 80.5 to 72.3%, and the frequency of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates increased from 75.0 to 87.5%. The proportion of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli fluctuated between 44.4 and 49.2%, and the detection rate of ESBL production in Klebsiella pneumoniae ranged from 55.6 to 88.9%. The resistance of E. coli strains to carbapenems was 5.0%, but the overall prevalence of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) was high (54.5%). Conclusions S. epidermidis, E. coli and S. pneumoniae were the predominant pathogens causing PBM in Chinese patients. The distribution of PBM causative organisms varied by age. The resistance of CoNS to methicillin and the high incidence of ESBL production among E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates were concerning. CRKP poses a critical challenge for the treatment of PBM.
Li-Jun Sun, Hong-Rui Dong, Xiao-Yi Xu, Guo-Qin Wang, Hong Cheng, and Yi-Pu Chen
BMC Nephrology, Vol 22, Iss 1, Pp 1-10 (2021)
Multiple myeloma, Light chain, Cast nephropathy, Amyloid casts, Crystalline casts, Acute kidney injury, Diseases of the genitourinary system. Urology, and RC870-923
Abstract Background Light chain cast nephropathy (LCCN) is the most common renal disease caused by multiple myeloma (MM). In addition to ordinary light chain protein casts, there are a few rare casts with unique shapes, including light chain amyloid casts (LCAC) and light chain crystal casts (LCCC). Case presentations Here, we report two patients. Patient 1 is a 72-year-old man who was clinically diagnosed with MM and acute kidney injury (AKI). Pathological examination of a renal biopsy revealed that there were many amyloid casts in the distal tubules that had a lightly-stained central area and a deeply-stained burr-like edge. The marginal zone of the cast was positive for Congo red staining and contained numerous amyloid fibers, as observed by electron microscopy. No systemic amyloidosis was found. The patient received 4 courses of bortezomib-based chemotherapy, and then, his MM achieved partial remission. Patient 2 is a 57-year-old man who was also clinically diagnosed with MM and AKI. Pathological examination of a renal biopsy showed that there were many crystalline casts in the distal tubules that were fully or partially composed of crystals with different shapes, including rhomboid, needle, triangle, rectangle and other geometric shapes. Congo red staining was negative. Crystals were also detected in the urine of this patient. After 9 courses of treatment with a bortezomib-based regimen, his MM obtained complete remission and his renal function returned to normal. Conclusions LCAC and LCCC nephropathy caused by MM are two rare types of LCCN, and both have their own unique morphological manifestations. LCAC nephropathy may not be accompanied by systemic amyloidosis. The diagnosis of these two unique LCCNs must rely on renal biopsy pathology, and the discovery of urine crystals is of great significance for indicating LCCC nephropathy.