Sociology, Sociologie, Sociologie, Sociology, Sociologie économique et du développement, Sociology of economy and development, Sociologie économique, Economic sociology, Niveau de vie. Revenu, Standard of living. Income, Différence selon le sexe, Gender difference, Economie de marché, Market Economy, Inégalité, Inequality, Post-communisme, Post-communism, Salaire, and Salary
How does post-socialist transition to market economy change gender wage inequality? What processes are driving this change? This study undertakes to answer these questions by using longitudinal data on full-time workers in their early careers in four regions of the former Soviet Union. The main analytic tool is linear regression decomposition, with the change in within-region wage percentile as the dependent variable in the regression. During 4-5 years in the mid-1990s, men were significantly more likely than women to move up the wage hierarchy in Estonia and Latvia. The opposite development took place in the Sverdlovsk region in Russia and, to a lesser extent, in the Kharkiv region in Ukraine. Whether gender pay gap increased or declined, the wage mobility of gender-segregated occupations and sectors was a major contributor to the changes in gender wage stratification. At the same time, the labour force reshuffle during market transition disproportionately channelled one or the other gender group into occupations and sectors with lower earnings. The differential effect of family factors on the earnings of men and women does not explain any part of the gender gap in wage mobility. The impact of the gender difference in pay aspirations is likewise trivial.
Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings. 2010, Vol. 2010 Issue 1, p1-6. 6p.
CONFLICT management, ORGANIZATIONAL structure, INTERPERSONAL relations, SOCIAL conflict, INTEREST (Psychology), and GROUP identity
We question the tenet that, when unchecked by external forces or rational interests, salient group divisions lead to in-group economic transaction preferences. Members of conflicting groups can simultaneously maintain identity and develop pointedly arm's-length -- yet economically functional -- relations. We show how this happened in an 18th-century British merchant community. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
ECONOMIC competition, QUANTITATIVE research, and EMPIRICAL research
The paper establishes a dialog between different sociological conceptions of economic competition and the measures that these conceptions imply. It critiques the existing relational measures of competition, particularly structural equivalence and niche overlap. Instead it advocates measures that do not impose resource valuations but rely on valuations reported by the actors. The empirical analysis of original data from the San Francisco Bay Area drug development industry finds merit in the latter type of measures. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
VENTURE capital, ECONOMIC competition, BUSINESS enterprises, INVESTMENTS, and CORPORATIONS
How does a history of competition between two economic actors affect their willingness and ability to work together for mutual benefit? Theory and research disagree in their answers to this question. Some students of economy believe that economic competition and cooperation are "polar opposites" and, consequently, competition between firms should hinder cooperation between them. The competitive embeddedness hypothesis, on the contrary, postulates that the likelihood of cooperation between two firms is significantly and positively related to the intensity of competition between these firms in the preceding period. The mechanism leading to this outcome is familiarity and knowledge-based trust, both of which are greater between competitors than between non-competitors or two randomly selected actors. The studies in the social interdependence tradition offer mixed predictions and results. My analysis of investment syndicates in venture capital industry supports the competitive embeddedness hypothesis. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Trapido, Denis, Pallotti, Francesca, and Lomi, Alessandro
Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings. 2016, Vol. 2016 Issue 1, p1-1. 1p.
The vibrant scholarly inquiry into the outcomes of interorganizational relations has rarely attended to the outcomes of these relations for organizations' clients. We therefore lack good understanding of how interorganizational networks serve the benefits of the clients, particularly when organizational outcomes are loosely coupled with the clients' outcomes. We posit that the clients' benefit from providers' networks depends on the providers' knowledge of their partners' complementary capabilities. We examine two relational factors that lower barriers to knowledge sharing and thereby help clients benefit from providers' network relations. Building on insights from social comparison theory, we argue that organizations are more likely to know their partners' complementary capabilities and employ these complementarities to the benefit of the clients when their performance visibly differs from that of their network partners. We further argue that preferential transaction with a limited set of partners has a beneficial effect on client outcomes. An analysis of a regional network of patient transfers among 110 hospitals supported these arguments. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
INTERNATIONAL economic integration, BUSINESSPEOPLE, CITIES & towns, GROUP identity, and IDENTITY (Psychology)
We theorize integration and estrangement maintenance as two relational mechanisms that counterbalance economic endogamy, i.e. economic actors' tendency to transact and cooperate within rather than across socially meaningful groups. We test empirical implications of these mechanisms using longitudinal data on merchant cooperation networks in the 18th century English city of Bristol, where a severe political cleavage between Tory and Whig merchants consistently failed to damage cross-party business cooperation. Our results are inconsistent with the integration mechanism, which implies that cross-party business relations are forged in joint activities that obviate group identity, such as joint participation in civil associations. Instead, we find that such relations resulted from political rivals' maintenance of pointedly arm's length, unequal-status contacts while avoiding same-status business partnerships common within their own parties. These findings expand the perspective of the research on economic endogamy, which has hitherto emphasized non-relational forces, external to contexts at hand, as antidotes to endogamy. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]