This article presents the concept, implementation and results of the project "OpenGeoEdu", an open and web-based educational resource on Remote Sensing and GIS. OpenGeoEdu is focused on the use of open geodata in spatially oriented study courses. Teachers and students in the German-speaking countries are to be offered an open learning environment hoping to increase the motivation of students and researchers by dealing with current societal relevant issues. OpenGeoEdu is available at www.opengeoedu.de, has been offered as a MOOC since October 2018 and is being continuously expanded and developed. In addition, an umbrella portal of the portals on open geodata is available to quickly get an overview of the data offered. Four partners from universities, non-university research institutions as well as federal research authorities with R&D tasks are collaborating in this project offering case studies for teaching and education based on their experiences in a wide range of spatial applications.
Suman Halder, S. I. Liba, A. Nahar, S. S. Sikder, and S. Manjura Hoque
AIP Advances, Vol 10, Iss 12, Pp 125308-125308-7 (2020)
Physics and QC1-999
In the present work, we have studied the influence of the annealing temperature and concentration of Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles as a heat generation material for hyperthermia therapy. Cobalt zinc ferrite (Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) nanoparticles were synthesized by the chemical co-perception method and annealed at 200 °C, 400 °C, and 600 °C for 3 h. The structural characterization was carried out using an x-ray diffractometer, and all samples exhibit a single-phase spinel structure. The M-H loop of the as-dried and annealed samples revealed a narrow “S” shaped hysteresis cycle, which exhibits the superparamagnetic behavior of all samples. The Mössbauer spectrum of all samples at room temperature showed a doublet, which is the signature of the superparamagnetic nature, and it is in good agreement with the acquired M-H curves. Surface modifications of the as-dried and annealed nanoparticles were achieved by coating the nanoparticles with chitosan, and solutions of different concentrations (1 mg/ml, 2 mg/ml, 4 mg/ml, and 6 mg/ml) were prepared. Employing dynamic light scattering measurement, the hydrodynamic diameter of the chitosan-coated nanoparticles at 37 °C was found to be between 173 nm and 231 nm, and the polydispersity index was less than 0.30 for all concentrations. The induction heating measurements indicated that the heating efficiency of chitosan-coated nanoparticles increased according to the order of annealing temperature (600 °C > 400 °C > 200 °C> as-dried) and the solution of concentration (6 mg/ml > 4 mg/ml > 2 mg/ml > 1 mg/ml).
Rubana Islam, Shahed Hossain, Farzana Bashar, Shaan Muberra Khan, Adel A. S. Sikder, Sifat Shahana Yusuf, and Alayne M. Adams
International Journal for Equity in Health, Vol 17, Iss 1, Pp 1-16 (2018)
Contracting-out, Primary healthcare, Health systems, Urban health, Non-state actors, Bangladesh, Public aspects of medicine, and RA1-1270
Abstract Background Contracting-out (CO) to non-state providers is used widely to increase access to health care, but it entails many implementation challenges. Using Bangladesh’s two decades of experience with contracting out Urban Primary Health Care (UPHC), this paper identifies contextual, contractual, and actor-related factors that require consideration when implementing CO in Low- and Middle- Income Countries. Methods This qualitative case-study is based on 42 in-depth interviews with past and present stakeholders working with the government and the UPHC project, as well as a desk review of key project documents. The Health Policy Triangle framework is utilized to differentiate among multiple intersecting contextual, contractual and actor-related factors that characterize and influence complex implementation processes. Results In Bangladesh, the contextual factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the health system, deeply impacted the CO process. These included competition with other health projects, public sector reforms, and the broader national level political and bureaucratic environment. Providing free services to the poor and a target to recover cost were two contradictory conditions set out in the contract and were difficult for providers to achieve. In relation to actors, the choice of the executing body led to complications, functionally disempowering local government institutions (cities and municipalities) from managing CO processes, and discouraging integration of CO arrangements into the broader national health system. Politics and power dynamics undermined the ethical selection of project areas. Ultimately, these and other factors weakened the project’s ability to achieve one of its original objectives: to decentralize management responsibilities and develop municipal capacity in managing contracts. Conclusions This study calls attention to factors that need to be addressed to successfully implement CO projects, both in Bangladesh and similar countries. Country ownership is crucial for adapting and integrating CO in national health systems. Concurrent processes must be ensured to develop local CO capacity. CO modalities must be adaptable and responsive to changing context, while operating within an agreed-upon and appropriate legal framework with a strong ethical foundation.
Abstract Purpose A lots of poultry litter (PL) is being generated every day from poultry industries and improper management leads to different environmental problems. Production of biochar from PL is a new management strategy of PL which is a nutrient-rich organic amendment for improving soil nutritional status. The experiment was aimed for the production of poultry litter biochar (PLB) from fresh PL to assess the important properties of both PL and PLB, and to observe the effects on plant growth. It also appraised the change of soil properties after PL and PLB application. Methods Poultry litter biochar was produced from fresh PL heated at 300 °C temperature for 10 min in muffle furnace. Poultry litter was applied into the soil at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 t ha−1 and PLB was applied at 1, 2, 3 and 4 t ha−1 along with control. Gima kalmi (Ipomoea aquatica) was grown as test plant. To assess the potentiality and residual effect, the same plant was grown consecutively after harvesting first crop. Post-harvest soil analysis was also carried out after harvesting the first crop. Results After pyrolysis pH, EC, organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, total phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron were increased in PLB. A significant (p
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2018, 8, 1, 21.
Solid state reaction technique, XRD, Permeability, Q-factor, Orthoferrite phase, and Scanning electron microscope (SEM).
The present work is focused on the influence of substitutions rare earth europium ions (Eu3+) in soft poly crystalline Ni-Zn ferrites. A series of ferrite samples of the compositions Ni0.60Zn0.35Eu0.05Fe2O4, Ni0.60Zn0.30Eu0.10Fe2O4 and Ni0.60Zn0.25Eu0.15Fe2O4 were prepared by using double sintering solid state reaction technique. The pre-sintering and sintering were performed at temperature 10000C for 3 hours and 12500C respectively. The phase identification was carried out by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD analysis revealed that undoped rare earth in sample shows formulation of cubic spinel structure with no extra peak but Eu3+ doped samples show additional peaks other spinel structure and corresponding to a second orthoferrite phase. A slightly increase in bulk density has been found with increasing RE content. The average grain size increases significantly with increasing Eu3+ content. The increase in density and grain growth of the samples may be attributed to the liquid phase at constant sintering temperature. Saturation magnetization, Ms was observed and was found to increase with increasing, Eu3+ contents. Eu3+ substitution in the Ni-Zn ferrites leads to increase of Fe3+ ions on the B-sites and consequently decreases Fe3+ ions on A-sites which lead to the increase in saturation magnetizations. The change of Ms with the augmentation of Eu3+ substitution has been explained on the Neel?s Collinear two sublattices magnetization model and Yafet-Kittels? non-collinear magnetization model. It is observed that addition of the rare earth europium ions (Eu3+) in polycrystalline Ni-Zn rare earth ferrites play an important role in modification of structural and magnetization characteristics.
M. Zashed Iqbal, M. A. Gafur, Md. Sultan Mahmud, D. K. Saha, and S. S. Sikder
Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 2018, 8, 4, 171.
X ray diffractomer (XRD), Scherrer?s formula, Grain Size, and Full width at half maximum (FWHM).
This thesis is based on the experimental investigation of the effect of grain size of Fe73.5-xCrxNb3Cu1Si13.5B9 [x = 7, 9, 10 & 12.5] alloys in the amorphous and annealed states. The samples are initially prepared in the amorphous state in the form of thin ribbons by rapid quenching technique at wheel speed of 25m/s in an Ar atmosphere. The alloy has been annealed in a controlled way in the temperature range of 450 - 800oC for 30 minutes. Amorphosity of the ribbon and nanocryatalline state was evaluated by XRD. In the optimized annealing condition the grain size has been obtained in the range of 11 - 30 nm. The primary crystallization phase shifts to higher annealed temperature with Cr content implying the enhancement of thermal stability of the amorphous alloys against crystallization due to increasing amount of Cr. The average grain size of the α-Fe (Si) phase, almost same under the identical annealing condition as the higher content Cr is increased. The peak shifts indicate the change of the values of Si-content of nanograins and therefore, the change of the values of lattice parameter of nanograins.
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, Vol 6, Iss 2, Pp 464-471 (2015)
Tomato, Gamma Ray, Ethyl methane sulphonate, Plant culture, and SB1-1110
Present investigation was undertaken to compare the mutagenic efficiency and effectiveness of gamma ray and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and to study the frequency and spectrum of macro-mutations in tomato. For this purpose, two cultivars of tomato having widely divergent place of origin viz., Patharkutchi of West Bengal, India and Alisa Craig of England were treated with 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250Gy gamma rays and 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25% (V/V) EMS solution. Results showed that seed germination, seedling height and pollen fertility in M1 generation reduced steadily with the increasing doses of both mutagens. The LD50 dose for Patharkutchi and Alisa Craig was 310.7Gy and 229.7Gy gamma ray, 0.30% and 0.20% EMS concentration, respectively. Gamma ray (50Gy to 150Gy) proved to be more efficient and effective mutagen followed by 0.05% to 10% EMS treatment. Five true breeding mutants hold promise for their utilization in tomato breeding programme.
Alain B. Labrique, Shegufta S. Sikder, Lisa J. Krain, Keith P. West, Parul Christian, Mahbubur Rashid, and Kenrad E. Nelson
Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol 18, Iss 9, Pp 1401-1404 (2012)
hepatitis E, hepatitis, viruses, humans, pregnancy, pregnancy complications, Medicine, Infectious and parasitic diseases, and RC109-216
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of illness and of death in the developing world and disproportionate cause of deaths among pregnant women. Although HEV vaccine trials, including trials conducted in populations in southern Asia, have shown candidate vaccines to be effective and well-tolerated, these vaccines have not yet been produced or made available to susceptible populations. Surveillance data collected during 2001–2007 from >110,000 pregnancies in a population of ≈650,000 women in rural Bangladesh suggest that acute hepatitis, most of it likely hepatitis E, is responsible for ≈9.8% of pregnancy-associated deaths. If these numbers are representative of southern Asia, as many as 10,500 maternal deaths each year in this region alone may be attributable to hepatitis E and could be prevented by using existing vaccines.