Masanori Kawanobe, Koki Toyota, Takashi Seko, and Koshi Gunjima
Journal of Nematology. 2019, Vol. 51 Issue 1, p1-7. 7p.
NEMATOCIDES, PRATYLENCHUS, SUGARCANE, FIPRONIL, SOIL density, POPULATION density, and INSECTICIDES
No nematicide has been registered for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes in sugarcane in Japan. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the phenylpyrazole insecticide fipronil (0.3-0.45 kg a.i./ha) against the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus zeae, which is an important plant-parasitic nematode species associated with sugarcane ( Saccharum spp. hybrids) in Okinawa, Japan. Both experiments showed a reduction of P. zeae population densities in sugarcane roots to 27 to 56% of the non-treated control after 7 wk in the greenhouse experiment and 3 months in the field experiment (two trials). In contrast, P. zeae population densities in soil were not reduced by the fipronil treatment. At harvest, sugarcane yields in the field experiment were significantly increased by 6 to 8% in the fipronil treated plots compared to the non-treated control. The data showed that fipronil reduced numbers of P. zeae in sugarcane roots at the early stage of sugarcane seedling growth resulting in increased sugarcane yields. This is the first report of nematicidal activity of fipronil against P. zeae under field conditions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
NEMATODE diseases of plants, NEMATODE control, SUGAR cane disease & pest resistance, AGRICULTURAL chemicals, and PEST control
The results indicated that the application of Pseudomonas fluorescens was better that minimized lesion nematode population by 73.2% and enhanced germination %, number of tillers, commercial cane sugar %, cane yield and sugar yield by 87.2, 161.5, 12.7, 121.4 and 16.4%, respectively. This field experiment was repeated once during 2016-2017 and obtained 74.0% control of lesion nematode with higher yield of 124.4 t/ha in P. fluorescens @ 2.5 kg/ha sett treatment. Simultaneously another field experiment with fungal antagonists Purpureocillium lilacinum and Trichoderma viride @ 2.5 kg/ha were conducted during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017. The P. lilacinum was better than T. viride. During 2016-2017, similar results recorded 70.5% nematode control with cane yield 124.8 t/ha. The results demonstrated that P. fluorescens in combination of neem cake was better that caused the highest reduction in lesion nematode population (74.8%) with the cane yield of 115.8 t/ha. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
STIRLING, GRAHAM R., STIRLING, A. MARCELLE, and WALTER, DAVID E.
Journal of Nematology. Sep2017, Vol. 49 Issue 3, p327-333. 7p.
MITES as biological pest control agents, PLANT nematodes, BIOLOGICAL control of nematodes, ROOT-knot nematodes, NEMATODE-destroying fungi, and STUNT nematodes
Protogamasellus mica was extracted from a sugarcane field in Australia and cultured on bacterial-feeding nematodes. Studies with various nematodes in laboratory arenas showed that one mite and its progeny reduced nematode numbers by between 26 and 50 nematodes/day. A bacterivore (Mesorhabditis sp.), a fungivore (Aphelenchus avenae), and two plant parasites (root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica and root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus zeae) were all reduced at much the same rate despite the fact that the nematodes are quite different in size and motility and belong to different trophic groups. When sugarcane was grown in the greenhouse for 8 wk, stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus annulatus), a plant parasite that feeds ectoparasitically on roots, was almost eliminated from pots inoculated with the mite, and numbers of microbivores and root-lesion nematode were markedly reduced. Huge reductions in nematode populations were also observed when mites were added to microcosms containing small quantities of defaunated soil. These results show that P. mica multiplies rapidly when nematodes are available as a food source and has the capacity to play a role in regulating populations of both plant-parasitic and free-living nematodes. Future research should focus on understanding the crop and soil management practices required to enable this mite and other predatory species to thrive. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
TROCCOLI, Alberto, SUBBOTIN, Sergei A., CHITAMBAR, John J., JANSSEN, Toon, WAEYENBERGE, Lieven, STANLEY, Jason D., DUNCAN, Larry W., AGUDELO, Paula, MÚNERA URIBE, Gladis E., FRANCO, Javier, and INSERRA, Renato N.
Amphimictic populations of root-lesion nematodes with numerous males and females having three lip annuli, a functional spermatheca and non-areolated lateral field occur on sword fern (Nephrolepis exaltata) in Florida. Identified for decades as Pratylenchus penetrans, they appeared to be a morphologically separated species on the basis of a longer stylet (17.8-18.3 µm) than P. penetrans (15-17 µm) and different lip pattern in enface view (rectangular vs dumb-bell in P. penetrans). Morphologically similar amphimictic root-lesion nematodes have also been detected on flax lily in Costa Rica. Subsequent morphological observations indicated that these amphimictic root-lesion nematodes from fern and flax lily are closely related to the parthenogenetic species P. bolivianus, which has areolated lateral fields. In spite of the reproductive and morphological dissimilarities between these populations, their separation into different species was not supported by the results of molecular analyses of their DNA sequences. The populations used in these analyses included those that are amphimictic from Florida and Costa Rica and others that are parthenogenetic from the type locality in Bolivia, and geographically distant localities in Chile, China, Colombia and Europe. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS and D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S rRNA gene indicated that they belong to the same species, P. bolivianus, which consists of two morphotypes, P. bolivianus (am) amphimictic and P. bolivianus (pm) parthenogenetic, herein described and illustrated. Contradictory results were obtained by the analyses using a portion of the hsp90 gene. The phylogenetic study, which included sequences of other root-lesion nematodes, a topotype and geographical distant populations of P. zeae, revealed that P. bolivianus and P. zeae formed highly supported clades in the majority consensus trees. PCR with species-specific primers for rapid diagnostics of P. bolivianus and P. zeae were developed and tested. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of Agricultural Research (03681157). 2019, Vol. 57 Issue 3, p167-173. 7p.
A study was conducted at University of Ilorin and Research Farm, Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria. The investigation was aimed at assessing the nematicidal potential of two levels of compost tea from poultry droppings and cattle dung in the management of Pratylenchus zeae infecting two maize varieties (SUWAN I and DM- Y) in the field and screen house. Data were collected on initial soil nematode population, number of leaves, plant height, yield, mid and final soil nematode population. The results from two trials showed that treated plants performed significantly higher than their control counterparts in terms of yield especially and in the reduction of soil nematode population. Varietal differences were observed with respect to their reaction to nematode infection. SUWAN-I was more tolerant giving higher yield in spite of the higher galling, while DM-Y recorded higher suppression of Pratylenchus population. Though both treatments reduced nematode population and gave significantly higher yields than control plants, poultry compost tea at two levels proved to be superior to cattle dung compost tea. The application of poultry compost tea showed good promise of suppression of P. zeae and improving maize yield while being cost effective and environmental friendly. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]