PHILOSOPHERS, HUMANITY, ESSAYS, LAKES, CONTINUITY, and SUBJECTIVITY
On 19 July 2019, Agnes Heller died whilst swimming in Lake Balaton outside Budapest. With her passing, the culture of humanity lost one of its most remarkable representatives. So too, contemporary critique lost a philosophical sensibility that is, today, within the neoliberal university, increasingly rare. It is this philosophical sensibility with which this essay is concerned. Through a critical reconstruction of Heller's reading of three key figures from the philosophical tradition (Marx, Pascal and Kierkegaard), this essay both charts the changes and continuities in Heller's philosophy of concrete subjectivity and makes a case for its continuing relevance to the cultural project of philosophy. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
TRAMES: A Journal of the Humanities & Social Sciences. 2020, Vol. 24 Issue 4, p533-548. 16p.
PHILOSOPHERS, HETEROGENEITY, HOMOGENEITY, and DIALECTIC
The present article aims to examine critically Laclau's claim that the trend toward social heterogenization revokes the Dialectic, or, more specifically, the clear and strict line of demarcation between what falls within the Dialectic and what falls outside of it. Polemicizing with the assumption of this reading, I argue that the appearance of a radical heterogeneity rather exposes the undecidability of relations between the Dialectic and what is a heterogeneity. To undergo the experience of this relation means not only to confront something that dislocates the Dialectic, but also what makes it what it is. The concrete determination of this limit relation is precisely what is at stake in the populist construction of the people, the political articulation of a popular identity. Against this backdrop, I argue that it is not so much Laclau as Agamben who opens the possibility to think about a heterogeneity non-dialectically. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
J. R. Kantor introduced his interbehavioral psychology or interbehaviorism in the early 20th century. One major mark of interbehaviorism is the view of psychological behavior as mutually interdependent functions of stimulus objects and response occurrences. In this, the foundations of any behavior are represented by stimulus ↔ response. This paper explores the similarities between Kantor's stimulus-response interaction and Dewey's (1896) sensori-motor circuit, which was his proposed alternative to the reflex arc. The paper begins by discussing Kantor's (1917) dissertation at the University of Chicago as a functional study of the verbal behavior of philosophers. It then examines Dewey's (1896) sensori-motor circuit and critique of the reflex arc. Afterward, it describes Kantor's concepts of stimulus function and response function. Lastly, it brings together Kantor and Dewey, juxtaposing their positions. The paper concludes by putting Kantor and Dewey in context, considering the importance of stimulus ↔ response for the science of psychology. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Process Studies. 2020, Vol. 49 Issue 2, p234-253. 20p.
This article is an attempt to compare the monadological multitude in Leibniz with Whitehead's view of process and the present. Some contemporary philosophers are considered (e.g., Levinas) in the effort to understand the monadologies of these two thinkers. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
PHILOSOPHERS, PRAGMATISM, PHILOSOPHY, SOCIOLOGY, and INSPIRATION
As an important neo-pragmatist philosopher Hans Joas notes that the term of value is very controversial in academic circles. But the analysis of how values arise have failed. For this reason he refers in 'The Genesis of Values' to some classical philosophers in sociology and philosophy. He presents and discusses their conception of values and the genesis of values. As a result of his research he formulates his own theory of the genesis of values under the inspiration of Pragmatism: 'Values, arise from the experiences of self- formation and self-transcendence of humanbeings. But Joas doesn't refer to transcendental existence. He uses this term as going beyond ourselves. And self- formation is a process in that individuals achieve their self-identity. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Philosophy, Jewish philosophy--20th century, Jews--Identity, Philosophers--United States--Biography, and Cultural pluralism
During his more than fifty-year writing career, American Jewish philosopher Horace Kallen (1882–1974) incorporated a deep focus on science into his pragmatic philosophy of life. He exemplified the hope among Jews that science would pave the way to full and equal integration. In this intellectual biography, Kaufman explores Kallen's life and illuminates how American scientific culture inspired not only Kallen's thought but also that of an entire generation. Kaufman reveals the ways in which Kallen shaped the direction of discussions on race, ethnicity, modernism, and secularism that influenced the American Jewish community. An ardent secularist, Kallen was also a serious religious thinker whose Jewish identity, as unique and idiosyncratic as it was, exemplifies the modern responsiveness to the moral ideal of'authenticity.'Kaufman shows how one man's quest for authenticity contributed to a gradual shift in Jewish self-perception in America and how, in turn, his struggle led to America's embrace of Kallen's well-known term'cultural pluralism.'
Blyumin, Semen, Zhbanova, Natalya, and Sysoev, Anton
2020 2nd International Conference on Control Systems, Mathematical Modeling, Automation and Energy Efficiency (SUMMA) Control Systems, Mathematical Modeling, Automation and Energy Efficiency (SUMMA), 2020 2nd International Conference on. :14-17 Nov, 2020
Alexandre Kojève (1902–1968) was an important and provocative thinker. Born in Russia, he spent most of his life in France. His interpretation of Hegel and his notorious declaration that history had come to an end exerted great influence on French thinkers and writers such as Raymond Aron, Georges Bataille, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Jacques Lacan, and Raymond Queneau. An unorthodox Marxist, he was a critic of Martin Heidegger and interlocutor of Leo Strauss who played a significant role in establishing the European Economic Community; a polyglot with many unusual interests, he wrote works, mostly unpublished in his lifetime, on quantum physics, the problem of the infinite, Buddhism, atheism, and Vassily Kandinsky's paintings.In The Black Circle, Jeff Love reinterprets Kojève's works, showing him to be an essential thinker who challenged modern society and its valuation of individuality, self-interest, and freedom from death. Emphasizing Kojève's neglected Russian roots, The Black Circle puts him in the context of the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Russian debates over the proper ends of human life. Love explores notions of perfection, freedom, and finality in Kojève's account of Hegel and his neglected later works, clarifying Kojève's emancipatory thinking and the meaning of the oft-misinterpreted “end of history.” Combining intellectual history, close textual analysis, and philosophy, The Black Circle reveals Kojève's thought as a profound critique of capitalist individualism and a timely meditation on human freedom.
Language in India. Apr2020, Vol. 20 Issue 4, p43-55. 13p.
Poets, Philosophers, and Christians
Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin (1770-1843) was a German poet-philosopher who is viewed by scholars as a writer who naturalized the forms of classical Greek verse in German and in melding Christian and classical themes. Nietzsche is supposed to have been influenced by Hölderlin. Martin Heidegger interpreted Hölderlin's poem "Ister" from a philosophical perspective and delivered important lectures and takes Hölderlin's poems as illustrations to interpret his philosophical discourses. This paper aims at studying the predominant themes of the poems of Hölderlin that view the world from the position of a European scholar of the eighteenth century who understands the limitations of time and space and emphasizes on the fluidity of life. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
JEWISH philosophers, PHILOSOPHERS, HASIDISM, JUDAISM, DIALOGUE (Philosophy), ERASMUS Prize, and AUSTRIA
The article discusses the life, career, and accomplishments of Austrian Jewish philosopher Martin Buber. Topics explored include brief details about his family, education, and introduction to Judaism and Hasidism, his conceptualization of the philosophy of dialogue that was presented in his 1923 book "I and Thou," and the awards and recognition he received such as the Erasmus Prize in 1963.
PHILOSOPHERS, CATALANS, SOCIOCULTURAL factors, and PHYSICIANS
This essay demonstrates that the work of the Catalan philosopher Ramon Llull was read by Sephardic Jews around the time of their expulsion from Spain and contextualizes Jewish Lullism in terms of sociocultural identity. I identify a curious Hebrew fragment of seventeen philosophical definitions as having been extracted from Llull's centum formae (hundred forms) in his Introductorium magnae artis generalis. It is written in a peculiar Catalanized Castilian in Hebrew script that seems to indicate the existence of a lost Catalan version of the work. I situate the copying and especially its readership as coming from the milieu of Sephardic Jewish physicians in Italy, probably shortly after the expulsion. Llull's readership among these physicians reveals that his method was perceived as relevant for the trained Jewish physician and for the study of scholastic logic, both prior to and after the expulsion, reflecting the high degree of Jewish absorption and adoption of the Christian cultural trends of late fifteenth-century Spain, particularly Catalonia. An appendix offers a critical edition of the fragment with contrastive comments to known Latin manuscripts. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society. Spring2020, Vol. 56 Issue 2, p212-221. 10p.
PHILOSOPHERS, SCIENCE, CHRISTIANITY, and PHILOSOPHY
Although drawn from the historical fact of modern science, Peirce's concept of science is unusual, radical, and difficult: he defined it not by its alleged method—scientific discovery is also of methods—but by its 'spirit', viz., of restless dissatisfaction with what already is known. Endless inquiry replaces the classical ideal of a body of knowledge in which inquiry comes to rest. This modifies how "The Fixation of Belief" is to be understood. The advent of modern science created a new kind of person, the specialist researcher, with novel ambitions, pleasures, and values, and a new kind of community, of diverse specialists. It entailed a linear view of history and it required a faith in the future like that which Christianity had introduced to Europe. This concept of science is fundamental to Peirce's philosophy, but that theme is not here developed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Utilitarianism--History, Philosophers--Biography, and Philosophy--History
A colorful history of utilitarianism told through the lives and ideas of Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, and its other foundersIn The Happiness Philosophers, Bart Schultz tells the colorful story of the lives and legacies of the founders of utilitarianism—one of the most influential yet misunderstood and maligned philosophies of the past two centuries.Best known for arguing that'it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong,'utilitarianism was developed by the radical philosophers, critics, and social reformers William Godwin (the husband of Mary Wollstonecraft and father of Mary Shelley), Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart and Harriet Taylor Mill, and Henry Sidgwick. Together, they had a profound influence on nineteenth-century reforms, in areas ranging from law, politics, and economics to morals, education, and women's rights. Their work transformed life in ways we take for granted today. Bentham even advocated the decriminalization of same-sex acts, decades before the cause was taken up by other activists. As Bertrand Russell wrote about Bentham in the late 1920s,'There can be no doubt that nine-tenths of the people living in England in the latter part of last century were happier than they would have been if he had never lived.'Yet in part because of its misleading name and the caricatures popularized by figures as varied as Dickens, Marx, and Foucault, utilitarianism is sometimes still dismissed as cold, calculating, inhuman, and simplistic.By revealing the fascinating human sides of the remarkable pioneers of utilitarianism, The Happiness Philosophers provides a richer understanding and appreciation of their philosophical and political perspectives—one that also helps explain why utilitarianism is experiencing a renaissance today and is again being used to tackle some of the world's most serious problems.