Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal , Vol 20, Iss 2, Pp e227-e227 (2020)
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a heterogeneous disorder with a diverse clinical presentation ranging from weakness of certain body regions to tetraparesis with autonomic dysfunction and respiratory failure. Paraparetic GBS is a variant of GBS which is characterised by weakness limited to the lower limbs only. It is crucial to identify such topographical presentations, as a delay in diagnosis can lead to delayed initiation of specific treatment, which can negatively impact the outcome. We report a 29-year-old female patient who presented to the King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia, in 2017 with rapid onset asymmetrical weakness of lower extremities associated with bladder dysfunction during the immediate postpartum period. The weakness spared cranial nerves and arms and imaging studies of the spine was unremarkable. Cerebrospinal fluid investigations showed cyto-albuminologic dissociation and nerve conduction studies showed features of demyelination. The patient was diagnosed with a paraparetic variant of GBS and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. She had almost recovered completely at the two–month follow-up. Keywords: Paraparesis; Guillain-Barré Syndrome; Demyelination; Postpartum Period; Case Report; Saudi Arabia.
Objective: Our study aims to evaluate the etiologic and clinical features of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) in Saudi Arabia, and secondarily whether gender plays a role in CVST. Materials and Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from the stroke registry during the period from January 2008 to April 2018, and the patients with the diagnosis of CVST were identified, and data were analyzed for any gender-specific differences in clinical presentation and etiology of cerebral venous thrombosis. Results: There were 15 females while 11 males with a female:male ratio of 1.4:1. The mean age was 29.4± standard deviation 8.9 with the age range of 15–49. Headache was the most common and usually the first presenting symptoms present in 65% followed by hemiparesis and cranial nerve palsies. The first neurological examination was normal in 9/26 (34.6%) of the patients, while the common abnormality was cranial nerve palsies. Infections and trauma played an important part in risk factor analysis of our patient after the pregnancy- and hormone-related conditions. Some significant differences between the clinical presentation and risk factors among males and females were noted as age at presentation was higher in females while trauma and infections were common in male patients, although the involvement of the sinuses and response to treatment did not prove to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of this study were similar to the available literature with few differences. The relatively higher proportion of males in our study can be explained partly with more cases of traumatic CVST. Some important differences were noted between the risk factors and clinical presentation among genders. Large-scale prospective studies are needed to further clarify these differences.
Shahvaiz Magsi, Adeel Khoja, Mansoor Ali Merchant Rameez, Ariba Khan, and Noman Ishaque
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine, Vol 2016 (2016)
Neurology. Diseases of the nervous system and RC346-429
Background. We present a rare case of bilateral moyamoya disease presenting as multiple strokes and neurological deficits, treated with the neurosurgical procedure, encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS), in a 2-year-old male Pakistani minor. A positive outcome was achieved and the patient recovered fully. Case Summary. Our patient presented with a history of seizures and multiple episodes of hemiparesis (on and off weakness) at the age of 2 years. He had a delayed speech development and could not speak more than a few words. He had a slight slurring of speech too. He was diagnosed with bilateral moyamoya disease on Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA). Bilateral EDAS was done in the same year, after which his symptoms improved and patient had moderate functional recovery. Conclusion. A rare disease, moyamoya has been left unexplored in Pakistan; physicians and surgeons when dealing with cases in the pediatric population presenting with symptoms of stroke, signs of generalized weakness, and seizures should consider moyamoya disease as a possibility. Furthermore, this case demonstrates the effectiveness of EDAS procedure for the treatment of moyamoya disease.