Rieger, Juliane, Kaessmeyer, Sabine, Al Masri, Salah, Hünigen, Hana, and Plendl, Johanna
Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia: Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series C. Sep2020, Vol. 49 Issue 5, p656-678. 23p.
HORSE diseases, ENDOTHELIAL cells, HORSE health, NEOVASCULARIZATION, CARDIOVASCULAR system, MUSCULOSKELETAL system, MALE reproductive organs, and GONADS
The cardiovascular system is the first functional organ in the embryo, and its blood vessels form a widespread conductive network within the organism. Blood vessels develop de novo, by the differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells (vasculogenesis) or by angiogenesis, which is the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones. This review presents an overview of the current knowledge on physiological and pathological angiogenesis in the horse including studies on equine endothelial cells. Principal study fields in equine angiogenesis research were identified: equine endothelial progenitor cells; equine endothelial cells and angiogenesis (heterogeneity, markers and assessment); endothelial regulatory molecules in equine angiogenesis; angiogenesis research in equine reproduction (ovary, uterus, placenta and conceptus, testis); angiogenesis research in pathological conditions (tumours, ocular pathologies, equine wound healing, musculoskeletal system and laminitis). The review also includes a table that summarizes in vitro studies on equine endothelial cells, either describing the isolation procedure or using previously isolated endothelial cells. A particular challenge of the review was that results published are fragmentary and sometimes even contradictory, raising more questions than they answer. In conclusion, angiogenesis is a major factor in several diseases frequently occurring in horses, but relatively few studies focus on angiogenesis in the horse. The challenge for the future is therefore to continue exploring new therapeutic angiogenesis strategies for horses to fill in the missing pieces of the puzzle. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of International Obstetrics & Gynecology. Feb2022, Vol. 49 Issue 1, p106-110. 5p.
Endometriosis (EMs) is a common disease in women of childbearing age and its pathogenesis is not yet clear. Neurofibrogenesis and angiogenesis are important mechanisms for disease progression, chronic pelvic pain, and enlargement of endometriosis lesions, and the causes are also very complex, which is likely to be closely related to the change of EMs immune microenvironment. Macrophages, an important component of the immune environment in EMs, are abnormally recruited and produce morphological and functional changes during disease development, secreting various pro - and anti -inflammatory cytokines, causing hyperexcitability of neural signals and abnormal pathway transduction, participating in the regulation of vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) pathway and playing an important role in neuroangiogenesis. This paper summarizes the role of macrophages in the formation of nerve fibres and blood vessels in EMs and their potential mechanisms, and provides theoretical support for targeting EMs macrophages to intervene in the inflammatory process and peripheral nerve and blood vessel generation, and provides new ideas for understanding the pathogenesis of EMs. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Aims: We observed a microvascular structure in the cerebral cortex that has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. We have termed the structure a 'raspberry', referring to its appearance under a bright‐field microscope. We hypothesized that raspberries form through angiogenesis due to some form of brain ischaemia or hypoperfusion. The aims of this study were to quantify raspberry frequency within the cerebral cortex according to diagnosis (vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration and nondemented controls) and brain regions (frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortices, regardless of diagnosis). Materials and methods: In each of 10 age‐matched subjects per group, a 20‐mm section of the cerebral cortex was examined in haematoxylin‐and‐eosin‐stained sections of the frontal, temporal and parietal, and/or occipital lobes. Tests were performed to validate the haematoxylin‐and‐eosin‐based identification of relative differences between the groups, and to investigate inter‐rater variability. Results: Raspberry frequency was highest in subjects with vascular dementia, followed by those with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer's disease and last, nondemented controls. The frequency of raspberries in subjects with vascular dementia differed from that of all other groups at a statistically significant level. In the cerebral lobes, there was a statistically significant difference between the frontal and occipital cortices. Conclusions: We believe the results support the hypothesis that raspberries are a sign of angiogenesis in the adult brain. It is pertinent to discuss possible proangiogenic stimuli, including brain ischaemia (such as mild hypoperfusion due to a combination of small vessel disease and transient hypotension), neuroinflammation and protein pathology. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Parkhideh S, Calderon GA, Janson KD, Mukherjee S, Mai AK, Doerfert MD, Yao Z, Sazer DW, and Veiseh O
Biomaterials science [Biomater Sci] 2023 Jan 17; Vol. 11 (2), pp. 461-471. Date of Electronic Publication: 2023 Jan 17.
Humans, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells, Biocompatible Materials, Tissue Scaffolds chemistry, and Tissue Engineering methods
The survival and function of transplanted tissue engineered constructs and organs require a functional vascular network. In the body, blood vessels are organized into distinct patterns that enable optimal nutrient delivery and oxygen exchange. Mimicking these same patterns in engineered tissue matrices is a critical challenge for cell and tissue transplantation. Here, we leverage bioprinting to assemble endothelial cells in to organized networks of large (>100 μm) diameter blood vessel grafts to enable spatial control of vessel formation in vivo . Acellular PEG/GelMA matrices with perfusable channels were bioprinted and laminar flow was confirmed within patterned channels, beneficial for channel endothelialization and consistent wall shear stress for endothelial maturation. Next, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded within the patterned channel and maintained under perfusion culture for multiple days, leading to cell-cell coordination within the construct in vitro . HUVEC and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were additionally added to bulk matrix to further stimulate anastomosis of our bioprinted vascular grafts in vivo. Among multiple candidate matrix designs, the greatest degree of biomaterial vascularization in vivo was seen within matrices fabricated with HUVECs and hMSCs encapsulated within the bulk matrix and HUVECs lining the walls of the patterned channels, dubbed design M-C_E. For this lead design, vasculature was detected within the endothelialized, perfusable matrix channels as early as two weeks and αSMA+ CD31+ vessels greater than 100 μm in diameter had formed by eight weeks, resulting in durable and mature vasculature. Notably, vascularization occurred within the endothelialized, bioprinted channels of the matrix, demonstrating the ability of bioprinted perfusable structures to guide vascularization patterns in vivo . The ability to influence vascular patterning in vivo can contribute to the future development of vascularized tissues and organs.
Impaired endothelial cell (EC)-mediated angiogenesis contributes to critical limb ischemia in diabetic patients. The sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway participates in angiogenesis but is repressed in hyperglycemia by obscure mechanisms. We investigated the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR39 on SHH pathway activation in ECs and ischemia-induced angiogenesis in animals with chronic hyperglycemia. Human aortic ECs from healthy and type 2 diabetic (T2D) donors were cultured in vitro. GPR39 mRNA expression was significantly elevated in T2D. The EC proliferation, migration, and tube formation were attenuated by adenovirus-mediated GPR39 overexpression (Ad-GPR39) or GPR39 agonist TC-G-1008 in vitro. The production of proangiogenic factors was reduced by Ad-GPR39. Conversely, human ECs transfected with GPR39 siRNA or the mouse aortic ECs isolated from GPR39 global knockout (GPR39 KO ) mice displayed enhanced migration and proliferation compared with their respective controls. GPR39 suppressed the basal and ligand-dependent activation of the SHH effector GLI1, leading to attenuated EC migration. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that the GPR39 direct binding of the suppressor of fused (SUFU), the SHH pathway endogenous inhibitor, may achieve this. Furthermore, in ECs with GPR39 knockdown, the robust GLI1 activation and EC migration were abolished by SUFU overexpression. In a chronic diabetic model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia, the GPR39 KO mice demonstrated a faster pace of revascularization from hind limb ischemia and lower incidence of tissue necrosis than GPR39 wild-type (GPR39 WT ) counterparts. These findings have provided a conceptual framework for developing therapeutic tools that ablate or inhibit GPR39 for ischemic tissue repair under metabolic stress.