Journal of Health & Social Behavior; Mar2021, Vol. 62 Issue 1, p100-118, 19p
LEADERSHIP, COMMUNITY centers, WOMEN'S employment, SOCIAL conditions in China, and WOMEN -- China
This study examined the role of women's political leadership at the community level in China, a context that has experienced recent political and socioeconomic change and has a distinctive rural–urban divide. Drawing on longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies (N range = 40,918–52,406 person-year observations), we found that female community directors outnumbered male directors in urban China but were much less common in rural areas. Female community directors had higher levels of human capital regardless of rural or urban location. Residents living in female-directed communities reported better mental health but not physical health or life satisfaction compared to those living in male-directed communities, and this association was most robust among rural women. For rural women, the mental health benefit of living in female-directed communities was partially explained by reduced personal experience of gender discrimination, suggesting that female leadership fosters ideational change toward women that lowers discriminatory behaviors among constituents. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Population Studies. Feb2021, p1-16. 16p. 3 Illustrations, 2 Charts.
A wealth of demographic research has explored the determinants of sex ratios at birth, but few studies have considered the role of foetal loss (spontaneous abortion), in producing feminine sex ratios. One challenge is measuring the occurrence of foetal loss, which is difficult to recognize and report in survey research. This study uses the length of the birth interval as a proxy for foetal loss; foetal loss restarts the clock on time to conception and lengthens the birth interval. We use Demographic and Health Survey data on second births to women in 17 sub-Saharan African countries. Results show that longer second birth intervals are significantly related to lower odds of a male second birth and to feminine sex ratios at birth. These findings suggest that high levels of foetal loss, which could signal underlying poor maternal health in a population, have dramatic effects on the sex ratio at birth. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]