JOTSE: Journal of technology and science education; 2018: Vol.: 8 Núm.: 2
This academic work has the aim of analyzing the impact of graphic organizers in the development of reading comprehension accordance with the level of English of each student. The theoretical foundation is constructed by the contents previously defined in the problem; with specific bibliography for the scientific content. Statistical analyses of information were taken into consideration. The implementation of this research will permit the creation and design of a handbook with easy-to-read stories that would increase students receptive abilities in a foreign language in the learning process, especially for students with learning disabilities (dyslexia). These analyses determined the importance of the application of a handbook that would include a short and a long text, vocabulary in context, strategies to improve reading skills, and unit assessments to evaluate the knowledge of students in each unit. This will let the students to develop multiple skills with the guidance of the teacher. This innovative material has as a main target to help the learner to decode phonemes and to identify structures of the story through charts and pictures
Brown, Susan J., Editor, Pfrender, Michael E., Editor, Schuler, Hannes, Lopez, Jacqueline A., Doellman, Meredith M., Hood, Glen R., Egan, Scott P., Feder, Jeffrey L., and Walker, John M., Series Editor
Insect Genomics : Methods and ProtocolsInsect Genomics. 11/10/2018. 1858:195-212
Shi, Zonggao, Lopez, Jacqueline, Kalliney, William, Sutton, Bobbie, Simpson, Joyce, Maggert, Kevin, Liu, Sheng, Wan, Jun, and Stack, M. Sharon
PLoS ONE. 4/21/2022, Vol. 17 Issue 4, p1-16. 16p.
BIOINFORMATICS software, NUCLEOTIDE sequencing, SOMATIC mutation, SINGLE nucleotide polymorphisms, GENE libraries, GENETIC variation, and GENETIC mutation
Purpose: The demand for high-throughput genetic profiling of somatic mutations in cancer tissues is growing. We sought to establish a targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) panel test for clinical oncology practice. Methods: Customized probes were designed to capture exonic regions of 141 genes selected for the panel, which was aimed for the detection of clinically actionable genetic variations in cancer, including KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, ALK, ROS1, KIT and EGFR. The size of entire targeted regions is 0.8 Mb. Library preparation used NEBNext Ultra II FS kit coupled with target enrichment. Paired-end sequencing was run on Illumina NextSeq 500 at a read length of 150 nt. A bioinformatics workflow focusing on single nucleotide variant and short insertions and deletions (SNV/indel) discovery was established using open source, in-house and commercial software tools. Standard reference DNA samples were used in testing the sensitivity and precision and limit of detection in variant calling. Results: The general performance of the panel was observed in pilot runs. Average total reads per sample ranged from 30 million to 48 million, 73% ~82% unique reads. All runs had more than 99% average mapping rate. Mean target coverage ranged from 727x to 879x. Depth of coverage at 50x or more reached 87% of targeted region and 60% of targeted region received 500x or more coverage depth. Using OncoSpan HD827 DNA, which bears 144 variants (SNV/indel) from 80 genes that are within the targeted region on the panel, our somatic variant calling pipeline reached 97% sensitivity and 100% precision respectively, with near 48 million reads. High concordance with orthogonal approaches in variant detection was further verified with 7 cancer cell lines and 45 clinical specimens. Conclusion: We developed a NGS panel with a focus on clinically actionable gene mutations and validated the performance in library construction, sequencing and variant calling. High concordance with reference materials and orthogonal mutation detection was observed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Parasitic nematodes infect over 1 billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases. Despite their prevalence, our understanding of the biology of parasitic nematodes has been limited by the lack of tools for genetic intervention. In particular, it has not yet been possible to generate targeted gene disruptions and mutant phenotypes in any parasitic nematode. Here, we report the development of a method for introducing CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene disruptions in the human-parasitic threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis. We disrupted the S. stercoralis twitchin gene unc-22, resulting in nematodes with severe motility defects. Ss-unc-22 mutations were resolved by homology-directed repair when a repair template was provided. Omission of a repair template resulted in deletions at the target locus. Ss-unc-22 mutations were heritable; we passed Ss-unc-22 mutants through a host and successfully recovered mutant progeny. Using a similar approach, we also disrupted the unc-22 gene of the rat-parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti. Our results demonstrate the applicability of CRISPR-Cas9 to parasitic nematodes, and thereby enable future studies of gene function in these medically relevant but previously genetically intractable parasites.
Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), one of the most valuable timber and veneer trees in North America, provides nut shells with unique industrial uses and nut kernels with distinctive culinary attributes. A mature F1 full-sib progeny orchard of 248 individuals from the cross of two eastern black walnut cultivars provides a long-term resource for discovering genetic mechanisms controlling life history, quality traits, and stress resistance. The genetic linkage map, constructed with 356 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and 62 expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs), is 1645.7 cM in length, distributed across the expected 16 linkage groups. In this first application of QTL mapping in J. nigra, we report QTL for budbreak, peak pistillate bloom, peak staminate bloom, and heterodichogamy. A dominant major QTL for heterodichogamy is reported, the sequence for which is syntenic with the heterodichogamy QTL on chromosome 11 of Persian walnut (J. regia L.). The mapping population parents are both protogynous, and segregation suggests a Mendelian component, with a 3:1-like inheritance pattern from heterozygous parents. Mapping the sequenced EST-SSR markers to the J. regia "Chandler" V2.0 genome sequence revealed evidence for collinearity and structural changes on two of the sixteen chromosomes. The inclusion of sequenced EST-SSR markers enables the direct comparison of this and subsequent J. nigra maps and other Juglandaceae genetic maps. This investigation initiates long-term QTL detection studies for quality and stress resistance traits in black walnut. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Background: Gene expression regulation is one of the fundamental mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity and is expected to respond to selection in conditions favoring phenotypic response. The observation that many organisms increase their stress tolerance after acclimation to moderate levels of stress is an example of plasticity which has been long hypothesized to be based on adaptive changes in gene expression. We report genome-wide patterns of gene expression in two heat-tolerant and two heat-sensitive parthenogenetic clones of the zooplankton crustacean Daphnia pulex exposed for three generations to either optimal (18°C) or substressful (28°C) temperature. Results: A large number of genes responded to temperature and many demonstrated a significant genotype-byenvironment (GxE) interaction. Among genes with a significant GxE there were approximately equally frequent instances of canalization, i.e. stronger plasticity in heat-sensitive than in heat-tolerant clones, and of enhancement of plasticity along the evolutionary vector toward heat tolerance. The strongest response observed is the across-the-board down-regulation of a variety of genes occurring in heat-tolerant, but not in heat-sensitive clones. This response is particularly obvious among genes involved in core metabolic pathways and those responsible for transcription, translation and DNA repair. Conclusions: The observed down-regulation of metabolism, consistent with previous findings in yeast and Drosophila, may reflect a general compensatory stress response. The associated down-regulation of DNA repair pathways potentially creates a trade-off between short-term benefits of survival at high temperature and long-term costs of accelerated mutation accumulation.