ABDUCTION, HOSTAGE taking, KIDNAPPING, LOGIC, and REASONING
We present a dynamic approach to Peirce’s original construal of abductive logic as a logic of conjecture making, and provide a new decidable, contraction-free and cut-free proof system for the dynamic logic of abductive inferences with neighborhood semantics. Our formulation of the dynamic logic of abduction follows the philosophical and scientific track that led Peirce to his late, post-1903 characterization of abductive conclusions as investigands, namely invitations to investigate propositions conjectured at the level of pre-beliefs. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
RANSOMWARE, COMPUTER science, PRIVATE companies, HOSTAGE taking, NATIONAL security, and SOCIAL scientists
Ransomware is a type of malware that either encrypts or steals digital data and demands a financial ransom from the victim in order to release or return them. While criminals have been linking theft and hostage-taking to ransoms for a long time, the frequency and severity of contemporary ransomware, the nature and motivation of the perpetrators who use these methods of attack, and the type of targets victimized by these attacks – from federal governments to city municipalities, and from private companies to private citizens – suggests that ransomware be afforded much greater scholarly attention by social scientists. Ransomware is not solely a computer science problem. It is a security problem that has international, political, intelligence, and diplomatic ramifications. This article provides a detailed description of ransomware tailored to the social sciences. Using seven ransomware case studies, the article breaks down the technology's technical barriers, making ransomware more accessible to public policy and national security debates and analysis. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of European Public Policy. Jun2019, Vol. 26 Issue 6, p883-905. 23p.
INTERNATIONAL agencies, INTERNATIONAL relations, HOSTAGE taking, FORUM shopping, and INTERGOVERNMENTALISM
This paper contributes to theory development about the politics of overlapping organizations. It explains how organizational overlap can affect the execution of organizational mandates. Within the universe of intergovernmental overlapping organizations, I argue that we need to study institutional positions in conjunction with governmental preferences. Based on these two variables, member-states have different strategies at their disposal: hostage-taking, forum-shopping, and brokering. These strategies affect the formulation and implementation of multilateral commitments. Taking the EU-NATO overlap as an example, I show how these strategies can lead to compromised organizational mandates, where hostage-taking leads to long delays in sending troops, operational uncertainties and wasted resources and brokers are left with innovating informal solutions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Revista Científica General José María Córdova; ene-mar2020, Vol. 18 Issue 29, p183-209, 27p
INTELLIGENCE service, COMMUNITY of inquiry, GOVERNMENT policy, HOSTAGE taking, HOUSING, and INTELLECT
Copyright of Revista Científica General José María Córdova is the property of Escuela Militar de Cadetes General Jose Maria Cordova and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
(Bloomberg) -- Anti-government protesters in Ecuador freed ten police officers who'd been seized earlier Thursday, and also released more than two dozen journalists. The demonstrators were mainly from rural Andean and Amazonian indigenous communities, who came to the capital to resist an International Monetary Fund-backed austerity drive by President Lenin Moreno. [Extracted from the article]
(Bloomberg) -- Anti-government protesters in Ecuador freed ten police officers who'd been seized earlier Thursday, and also released more than two dozen journalists. Indigenous organizations initially demanded a restoration of fuel subsidies, then that Moreno leave office and, on Thursday, their umbrella group issued a statement saying the protests won't stop until the IMF leaves Ecuador. [Extracted from the article]
The article features Louisa Hope, a survivor of the 2014 Lindt Cafe siege in which a lone gunman held hostage several customers and employees of a Lind chocolate cafe in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Topics covered include recollections of Hope regarding the hostage taking, her motivation for launching the Louisa Hope Fund for Nurses with the help of the Prince of Wales Hospital Foundation and impact of the fund on nurses in Australia.