Reyes-Castro, Pablo A, Harris, Robin B, Brown, Heidi E, Christopherson, Gary L, and Ernst, Kacey C
Spatio-temporal and neighborhood characteristics of two dengue outbreaks in two arid cities of Mexico. 2017, 167:174-182 Acta Trop.
Dengue outbreak, Space-time clustering, and Socioeconomic factors
Little is currently known about the spatial-temporal dynamics of dengue epidemics in arid areas. This study assesses dengue outbreaks that occurred in two arid cities of Mexico, Hermosillo and Navojoa, located in northern state of Sonora. Laboratory confirmed dengue cases from Hermosillo (N=2730) and Navojoa (N=493) were geocoded by residence and assigned neighborhood-level characteristics from the 2010 Mexican census. Kernel density and Space-time cluster analysis was performed to detect high density areas and space-time clusters of dengue. Ordinary Least Square regression was used to assess the changing socioeconomic characteristics of cases over the course of the outbreaks. Both cities exhibited contiguous patterns of space-time clustering. Initial areas of dissemination were characterized in both cities by high population density, high percentage of occupied houses, and lack of healthcare. Future research and control efforts in these regions should consider these space-time and socioeconomic patterns.
Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret, Harris, Robin B, Hartz, Vern, Roberge, Jason, Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh, O'Rourke, Mary Kay, and Burgess, Jefferey L
Relation of dietary inorganic arsenic to serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) at different threshold concentrations of tap water arsenic. 2016, 26 (5):445-51 J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology
arsenic, MMP-9, dietary exposure, and biomarker of toxicity
Arsenic (As) exposure is associated with cancer, lung and cardiovascular disease, yet the mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. Elevated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels are also associated with these diseases, as well as with exposure to water As. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary components of inorganic As (iAs) intake on serum MMP-9 concentration at differing levels of tap water As. In a cross-sectional study of 214 adults, dietary iAs intake was estimated from 24-h dietary recall interviews using published iAs residue data; drinking and cooking water As intake from water samples and consumption data. Aggregate iAs intake (food plus water) was associated with elevated serum MMP-9 in mixed model regression, with and without adjustment for covariates. In models stratified by tap water As, aggregate intake was a significant positive predictor of serum MMP-9 in subjects exposed to water As≤10 μg/l. Inorganic As from food alone was associated with serum MMP-9 in subjects exposed to tap water As≤3 μg/l. Exposure to iAs from food and water combined, in areas where tap water As concentration is ≤10 μg/l, may contribute to As-induced changes in a biomarker associated with toxicity.
Вестник Северо-Восточного федерального университета им. М.К. Аммосова. Серия: Эпосоведение. 2017 (3):13-17
epic, intangible cultural heritage, living human treasures, olonkho, performers, preservation, resilience, tradition bearers, translation, transmission, and Unesco
UNESCO’s definition of safeguarding emphasizes the importance of measures which foster sustainability for living traditions rather than merely the documentation and public promotion of traditions in their “frozen” (memorized) forms. Unfortunately, the English word safeguarding has no clear equivalent in Russian. The closest Russian translations of the term safeguarding relate to preservation and protection rather than to the broader values of enduring creativity and resilience as expressed in the full texts of the ICH Convention. This translation issue has led to a general misunderstanding of UNESCO’s goals for endangered traditions, affecting Yakutia’s Plan of Action for revitalizing olonkho in such areas as budgeting, strategic planning and effective ways to support tradition bearers. According to UNESCO documents, an adequate definition of safeguarding will stress continuous re-creation, evolution, and transmission, not simple preservation. Without constant creativity giving life to an artistic genre, the core of its “genetic material” - the related knowledge, skills, and meanings - will wane. As a result, all that remains to be transmitted are the relatively static aspects of the tradition - even possibly limited to “relatives” of the original genre. In the case of olonkho, these related forms might include theatrical presentations, memorized scripts, movies, books, and other “distant relatives” of the solo genre performed by master olonkhosuts. Emphasizing the importance of the ecological model of “resilience theory” and affirming its potential for informing the revitalization of dying traditions, this presentation proposes a clearer definition of the term safeguarding for Russian audiences, outlining ways in which Yakutia’s Plan of Action might better reflect the intention of UNESCO’s ICH convention. For example, part of UNESCO’s recommendation for safeguarding moribund traditions is the encouragement to create programs and systems to support “Living Human Treasures.” The standards for these master performers demand not only excellent artistry in performance but also the ability and dedication to pass along the cultural heritage to others. This core UNESCO goal of transmission has proven one of the most difficult aspects in olonkho revitalization, and as a primary factor involved in safeguarding, it deserves more attention in the revitalization process. For example, the modest number of officially recognized master olonkhosuts in the first Decade of Olonkho has in the last several years dwindled to zero. Adequately addressing the transmission aspect of Yakutia’s Action Plan will involve identifying new master olonkhosuts and providing ways for them to focus on transmitting the living tradition of olonkho to the next generations.