Objective: Our study aims to evaluate the etiologic and clinical features of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) in Saudi Arabia, and secondarily whether gender plays a role in CVST. Materials and Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from the stroke registry during the period from January 2008 to April 2018, and the patients with the diagnosis of CVST were identified, and data were analyzed for any gender-specific differences in clinical presentation and etiology of cerebral venous thrombosis. Results: There were 15 females while 11 males with a female:male ratio of 1.4:1. The mean age was 29.4± standard deviation 8.9 with the age range of 15–49. Headache was the most common and usually the first presenting symptoms present in 65% followed by hemiparesis and cranial nerve palsies. The first neurological examination was normal in 9/26 (34.6%) of the patients, while the common abnormality was cranial nerve palsies. Infections and trauma played an important part in risk factor analysis of our patient after the pregnancy- and hormone-related conditions. Some significant differences between the clinical presentation and risk factors among males and females were noted as age at presentation was higher in females while trauma and infections were common in male patients, although the involvement of the sinuses and response to treatment did not prove to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of this study were similar to the available literature with few differences. The relatively higher proportion of males in our study can be explained partly with more cases of traumatic CVST. Some important differences were noted between the risk factors and clinical presentation among genders. Large-scale prospective studies are needed to further clarify these differences.
In early 2021, the US Census Bureau will begin releasing statistical tables based on the decennial census conducted in 2020. Because of significant changes in the data landscape, the Census Bureau is changing its approach to disclosure avoidance. The confidentiality of individuals represented "anonymously" in these statistical tables will be protected by a "formal privacy" technique that allows the Bureau to mathematically assess the risk of revealing information about individuals in the released statistical tables. The Bureau's approach is an implementation of "differential privacy," and it gives a rigorously demonstrated guaranteed level of privacy protection that traditional methods of disclosure avoidance do not. Given the importance of the Census Bureau's statistical tables to democracy, resource allocation, justice, and research, confusion about what differential privacy is and how it might alter or eliminate data products has rippled through the community of its data users, namely: demographers, statisticians, and census advocates. The purpose of this primer is to provide context to the Census Bureau's decision to use a technique based on differential privacy and to help data users and other census advocates who are struggling to understand what this mathematical tool is, why it matters, and how it will affect the Bureau's data products.
Neurosciences (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) [Neurosciences (Riyadh)] 2019 Jul; Vol. 24 (3), pp. 192-198.
Objective: To describe the prevalence, knowledge and attitudes about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use and the proportion that seek advice from their physician about CAM use. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was performed in multiple sclerosis (MS) clinic of King Fahd Hospital of Universityin Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January-June 2017. A total of 133 patients have completed the survey. Results: The mean age of patients was 32.3+/-7.6 years and 84 (63.2%) were female. Approximately 83.5% of the patients reported the use of CAM. Among all the reported forms of CAM, vitamins were the most prevalent form, followed by cupping, special prayers and meditation. The majority of patients (62%) obtained knowledge of CAM through social media. A significant number of patients (75.6%) did not disclose the use of CAM to their physician. There was a trend for using CAM more in highly educated, older age, and female patients. The most commonly reported rationale to use CAM was overall improvement in health status. Conclusion: The use of CAM among Saudi patients with MS is highly prevalent, without disclosure of its use to physicians. These factors should be taken into account in the doctor-patient consultation to avoid adverse events.
Techniques that may be used for detecting a primary content (e.g., a web page) that the user is viewing and presenting one or more pieces of supplemental content (e.g., social media data) together with the primary content. The supplemental content presented to the user together with the primary content may be content that is matched to the primary content and therefore detected to be relevant to the user. Detection of primary content and matching to supplemental content may be carried out based on a comparison of entities related to the primary and supplemental content. In some embodiments, an analysis of the primary content for entities may include ordering entities according to significance in the primary content and selecting top entities for comparison. Also, in some embodiments, multiple pieces of supplemental content may be displayed to a user categorized based on entity.
The synthesis and characterisation of new solid-state electrolytes is a key step in advancing the development of safer and more reliable electrochemical energy storage technologies. Organic ionic plastic crystals (OIPCs) are an increasingly promising class of material for application in devices such as lithium or sodium metal batteries as they can support high ionic conductivity, with good electrochemical and thermal stability. However, the choice of OIPC-forming ions is still relatively limited. Furthermore, understanding of the influence of different cations and anions on the thermal, structural and transport properties of these materials is still in its infancy. Here we report the synthesis and in-depth characterisation of a range of new OIPCs utilising the hexamethylguanidinium cation ([HMG]) with five different anions. The thermal, structural, transport properties and free volume in the different salts have been investigated. The free volume within the salts has been investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, and the single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis of [HMG] bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([TFSI]) in phase I and II, [HMG] hexafluorophosphate ([PF6]) and [HMG] tetrafluoroborate ([HMG][BF4]) are reported. The HMG cation can exhibit significant disorder, which is advantageous for plasticity and future use of these materials as high ionic conductivity matrices. The bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt, [HMG][FSI], is identified as particularly promising for use as an electrolyte, with good electrochemical stability and soft mechanical properties. The findings introduce a range of new materials to the solid-state electrolyte arena, while the insights into the physico-chemical relationships in these materials will be of importance for the future development and understanding of other ionic electrolytes. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Sayadi LR, Alhunayan D, Sarantopoulos N, Kong C, Condamoor S, Sayadi J, Banyard DA, Shaterian A, Leis A, Evans GRD, and Widgerow AD
Annals Of Plastic Surgery [Ann Plast Surg] 2019 Jun 20. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Jun 20.
Background: Ever since the classification of Dupuytren disease into the proliferative, involutional, and residual stages, extensive research has been performed to uncover the molecular underpinnings of the disease and develop better treatment modalities for patients. The aim of this article is to systematically review the basic science literature pertaining to Dupuytren disease and suggest a new approach to treatment. Methods: Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, a systematic review was conducted using the MEDLINE database to identify basic science literature on Dupuytren pathophysiology falling under 1 or more of the following categories: (1) Molecular alterations, (2) Structural alterations, and (3) Genetic predisposition. Results: A total of 177 articles were reviewed of which 77 studies met inclusion criteria. Articles were categorized into respective sections outlined in the study methods. Conclusion: The pathophysiological changes involved in Dupuytren's disease can be divided into a number of molecular and structural alterations with genetic predisposition playing a contributory role. Understanding these changes can allow for the development of biologics which may disrupt and halt the disease process.
Canadian Journal Of Physiology And Pharmacology [Can J Physiol Pharmacol] 2019 Jun; Vol. 97 (6), pp. 493-497. Date of Electronic Publication: 2018 Nov 23.
Fibroblasts have long been recognized as important stromal cells, playing key roles in synthesizing and maintaining the extracellular matrix, but historically were treated as a relatively uniform cell type. Studies in recent years have revealed a surprising level of heterogeneity of fibroblasts across tissues, and even within organs such as the skin and heart. This heterogeneity may have functional consequences, including during stress and disease. While the field has moved forward quickly to begin to address the scientific import of this heterogeneity, the descriptive language used for these cells has not kept pace, particularly when considering the phenotype changes that occur as fibroblasts convert to myofibroblasts in response to injury. We discuss here the nature and sources of the heterogeneity of fibroblasts, and review how our understanding of the complexity of the fibroblast to myofibroblast phenotype conversion has changed with increasing scrutiny. We propose that the time is opportune to reevaluate how we name and describe these cells, particularly as they transition to myofibroblasts through discrete stages. A standardized nomenclature is essential to address the confusion that currently exists in the literature as to the usage of terms like myofibroblast and the description of fibroblast phenotype changes in disease.
TIDES, PHARMACEUTICAL policy, CHEMICAL structure, and HARVESTING
In 2018, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a total of 59 new drugs, three of them (5%) are TIDES (or also, -tides), two oligonucleotides and one peptide. Herein, the three TIDES approved are analyzed in terms of medical target, mode of action, chemical structure, and economics. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
This study presents a numerical procedure, which we call the macroscopic forcing method (MFM), which reveals the differential operators acting upon the mean fields of quantities transported by underlying fluctuating flows. Specifically, MFM can precisely determine the eddy diffusivity operator, or more broadly said, it can reveal differential operators associated with turbulence closure for scalar and momentum transport. We present this methodology by considering canonical problems with increasing complexity. As an example demonstrating the usefulness of the developed methodology, we show that an eddy diffusivity operator, i.e. model form, obtained from an MFM analysis of homogeneous isotropic turbulence leads to significant improvement in RANS prediction of axisymmetric turbulent jets. We show a cost-effective generalization of MFM for analysis of non-homogeneous and wall-bounded flows, where the eddy diffusivity is found to be a convolution acting on the macroscopic gradient of transported quantities. We introduce MFM as an effective tool for quantitative understanding of non-Boussinesq effects and assessment of model forms in turbulence closures, particularly, the effects associated with anisotropy and non-locality of macroscopic mixing. Comment: 50 pages, 10 figures
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice. 2019, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p278-282. 5p.
SINUS thrombosis, THROMBOPHLEBITIS, CRANIAL sinuses, CEREBRAL embolism & thrombosis, CRANIAL nerves, and GENDER role
Objective: Our study aims to evaluate the etiologic and clinical features of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) in Saudi Arabia, and secondarily whether gender plays a role in CVST. Materials and Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from the stroke registry during the period from January 2008 to April 2018, and the patients with the diagnosis of CVST were identified, and data were analyzed for any gender-specific differences in clinical presentation and etiology of cerebral venous thrombosis. Results: There were 15 females while 11 males with a female:male ratio of 1.4:1. The mean age was 29.4± standard deviation 8.9 with the age range of 15–49. Headache was the most common and usually the first presenting symptoms present in 65% followed by hemiparesis and cranial nerve palsies. The first neurological examination was normal in 9/26 (34.6%) of the patients, while the common abnormality was cranial nerve palsies. Infections and trauma played an important part in risk factor analysis of our patient after the pregnancy- and hormone-related conditions. Some significant differences between the clinical presentation and risk factors among males and females were noted as age at presentation was higher in females while trauma and infections were common in male patients, although the involvement of the sinuses and response to treatment did not prove to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of this study were similar to the available literature with few differences. The relatively higher proportion of males in our study can be explained partly with more cases of traumatic CVST. Some important differences were noted between the risk factors and clinical presentation among genders. Large-scale prospective studies are needed to further clarify these differences. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Elsayed D, Song JH, Myatt E, Colasante T, and Malti T
Child Psychiatry And Human Development [Child Psychiatry Hum Dev] 2019 Apr 01. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Apr 01.
Pre- and post-migratory factors have been implicated in refugee children's mental health. However, findings regarding their unique and joint roles are inconsistent or nonexistent. We examined the main and interactive relations of pre-migratory life stressors and post-migratory daily hassles and routines to emotion regulation-a key marker of mental health-in 5- to 13-year-old Syrian refugee children (N = 103) resettling in Canada. Mothers and children completed questionnaires assessing pre-migratory life stressors and post-migratory daily hassles. Mothers also reported their children's adherence to family routines and emotion regulation abilities (i.e., anger and sadness regulation) via questionnaire. Overall, children who more frequently engaged in family routines showed better anger regulation. Pre- and post-migratory factors also interacted, such that greater post-migratory daily hassles were associated with worse sadness regulation for children with lower levels of pre-migratory life stressors, but were unassociated with the sadness regulation of children who experienced higher levels of pre-migratory life stressors. Results suggest that pre- and post-migratory factors play unique and joint roles in refugee children's emotion regulation during resettlement.
Danah Al Shaer, Othman Al Musaimi, Fernando Albericio, and Beatriz G. de la Torre
Pharmaceuticals, Vol 12, Iss 2, p 52 (2019)
dotatate, drugs, inotersen, Lutathera, oligonucleotides, Onpattro, patisiran, peptides, pharmaceutical market, Tegsedi, Pharmacy and materia medica, and RS1-441
In 2018, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a total of 59 new drugs, three of them (5%) are TIDES (or also, -tides), two oligonucleotides and one peptide. Herein, the three TIDES approved are analyzed in terms of medical target, mode of action, chemical structure, and economics.
Fish, Benjamin, Bashardoust, Ashkan, boyd, danah, Friedler, Sorelle A., Scheidegger, Carlos, and Venkatasubramanian, Suresh
Computer Science - Social and Information Networks and Physics - Physics and Society
The study of influence maximization in social networks has largely ignored disparate effects these algorithms might have on the individuals contained in the social network. Individuals may place a high value on receiving information, e.g. job openings or advertisements for loans. While well-connected individuals at the center of the network are likely to receive the information that is being distributed through the network, poorly connected individuals are systematically less likely to receive the information, producing a gap in access to the information between individuals. In this work, we study how best to spread information in a social network while minimizing this access gap. We propose to use the maximin social welfare function as an objective function, where we maximize the minimum probability of receiving the information under an intervention. We prove that in this setting this welfare function constrains the access gap whereas maximizing the expected number of nodes reached does not. We also investigate the difficulties of using the maximin, and present hardness results and analysis for standard greedy strategies. Finally, we investigate practical ways of optimizing for the maximin, and give empirical evidence that a simple greedy-based strategy works well in practice. Comment: Accepted at The Web Conference 2019