In early 2021, the US Census Bureau will begin releasing statistical tables based on the decennial census conducted in 2020. Because of significant changes in the data landscape, the Census Bureau is changing its approach to disclosure avoidance. The confidentiality of individuals represented "anonymously" in these statistical tables will be protected by a "formal privacy" technique that allows the Bureau to mathematically assess the risk of revealing information about individuals in the released statistical tables. The Bureau's approach is an implementation of "differential privacy," and it gives a rigorously demonstrated guaranteed level of privacy protection that traditional methods of disclosure avoidance do not. Given the importance of the Census Bureau's statistical tables to democracy, resource allocation, justice, and research, confusion about what differential privacy is and how it might alter or eliminate data products has rippled through the community of its data users, namely: demographers, statisticians, and census advocates. The purpose of this primer is to provide context to the Census Bureau's decision to use a technique based on differential privacy and to help data users and other census advocates who are struggling to understand what this mathematical tool is, why it matters, and how it will affect the Bureau's data products.
This study presents a numerical procedure, which we call the macroscopic forcing method (MFM), which reveals the differential operators acting upon the mean fields of quantities transported by underlying fluctuating flows. Specifically, MFM can precisely determine the eddy diffusivity operator, or more broadly said, it can reveal differential operators associated with turbulence closure for scalar and momentum transport. We present this methodology by considering canonical problems with increasing complexity. As an example demonstrating the usefulness of the developed methodology, we show that an eddy diffusivity operator, i.e. model form, obtained from an MFM analysis of homogeneous isotropic turbulence leads to significant improvement in RANS prediction of axisymmetric turbulent jets. We show a cost-effective generalization of MFM for analysis of non-homogeneous and wall-bounded flows, where the eddy diffusivity is found to be a convolution acting on the macroscopic gradient of transported quantities. We introduce MFM as an effective tool for quantitative understanding of non-Boussinesq effects and assessment of model forms in turbulence closures, particularly, the effects associated with anisotropy and non-locality of macroscopic mixing. Comment: 50 pages, 10 figures
Fish, Benjamin, Bashardoust, Ashkan, boyd, danah, Friedler, Sorelle A., Scheidegger, Carlos, and Venkatasubramanian, Suresh
Computer Science - Social and Information Networks and Physics - Physics and Society
The study of influence maximization in social networks has largely ignored disparate effects these algorithms might have on the individuals contained in the social network. Individuals may place a high value on receiving information, e.g. job openings or advertisements for loans. While well-connected individuals at the center of the network are likely to receive the information that is being distributed through the network, poorly connected individuals are systematically less likely to receive the information, producing a gap in access to the information between individuals. In this work, we study how best to spread information in a social network while minimizing this access gap. We propose to use the maximin social welfare function as an objective function, where we maximize the minimum probability of receiving the information under an intervention. We prove that in this setting this welfare function constrains the access gap whereas maximizing the expected number of nodes reached does not. We also investigate the difficulties of using the maximin, and present hardness results and analysis for standard greedy strategies. Finally, we investigate practical ways of optimizing for the maximin, and give empirical evidence that a simple greedy-based strategy works well in practice. Comment: Accepted at The Web Conference 2019
TechTrends: For Leaders in Education & Training. May 2019, Vol. 63 Issue 3, p245, 6 p.
Byline: Carmen Richardson (1), Danah Henriksen (2) Author Affiliation: (1) 0000 0001 0710 3086, grid.471349.c, Kamehameha Schools, KeaE'au, HI, USA (2) 0000 0001 2151 2636, grid.215654.1, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Article History: Registration Date: 12/03/2019 Online Date: 02/04/2019 Article note: The Deep-Play Research group is a loose collective of faculty and graduate students at Arizona State University, California State University, and Michigan State University. Participants include: Danah Henriksen, Sarah Keenan-Lechel, Rohit Mehta, Punya Mishra, Carmen Richardson & Melissa Warr.
TechTrends: For Leaders in Education & Training. Nov 2018, Vol. 62 Issue 6, p541, 7 p.
To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11528-018-0329-y Byline: Danah Henriksen (1), Punya Mishra (1) Author Affiliation: (1) 0000 0001 2151 2636, grid.215654.1, Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Article History: Registration Date: 06/09/2018 Online Date: 10/09/2018
In this article, we consider the benefits and challenges of enacting creativity in the K-12 context and examine educational policy with regard to twenty-first century learning and technology. Creativity is widely considered to be a key construct for twenty-first century education. In this article, we review the literature on creativity relevant to education and technology to reveal some of the complex considerations that need to be addressed within educational policy. We then review how creativity emerges, or fails to emerge, in six national education policy contexts: Australia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Finland, Slovakia, and the U.S. We also locate the connections, or lack of, between creativity and technology within those contexts. While the discussion is limited to these nations, the implications strongly point to the need for a coherent and coordinated approach to creating greater clarity with regards to the rhetoric and reality of how creativity and technology are currently enacted in educational policy.
Keenan-Lechel, Sarah F., Henriksen, Danah, and Mishra, Punya
TechTrends: For Leaders in Education & Training. July 2018, Vol. 62 Issue 4, p321, 6 p.
To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11528-018-0300-y Byline: Sarah F. Keenan-Lechel (1), Danah Henriksen (2), Punya Mishra (2) Author Affiliation: (1) 0000 0001 2150 1785, grid.17088.36, College of Education, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA (2) 0000 0001 2151 2636, grid.215654.1, Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Article History: Registration Date: 19/05/2018 Online Date: 28/05/2018 Article note: The Deep-Play Research group is a loose collective of faculty and graduate students at Arizona State University and Michigan State University. Participants include: Danah Henriksen, Sarah Keenan-Lechel, Rohit Mehta, Punya Mishra, & Carmen Richardson.
Al-Rasheed, Nawal M., Al-Rasheed, Nouf M., AL-Rabeeah, Danah A., AL-Barrak, Heba S., AL-Salman, Salma A., Ibrahim, Shahd A., AL-Hassab, Sulafa A., Al-Amin, Maha A., Hasan, Iman H., Al-Ajmi, Hanaa N., and AL-Shammari, Tahani K.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. May 2018, Vol. 119 Issue 5, p3903, 10 p.
Vitamin E -- Analysis and Hypoglycemic agents -- Analysis
To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcb.26530/abstract Byline: Nawal M. Al-Rasheed, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed, Danah A. AL-Rabeeah, Heba S. AL-Barrak, Salma A. AL-Salman, Shahd A. Ibrahim, Sulafa A. AL-Hassab,Maha A. Al-Amin, Iman H. Hasan, Hanaa N. Al-Ajmi, Tahani K. AL-Shammari Abstract Several studies have reported that metformin is cardioprotective for diabetic and non-diabetic ischemic hearts through mechanisms that cannot be entirely attributed to its anti-hyperglycemic effect. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of metformin with and without vitamin E after induction myocardial infarction (MI) in rats, using isoproterenol. Administration of metformin or vitamin E significantly reduced the cardiac mass index (P<0.01), ameliorated the changes to cardiac biomarkers, and attenuated oxidative stress levels compared to the isoproterenol group. Interestingly, combination therapy showed a slight synergistic effect. Histopathological analysis suggested that metformin treatment reduced NF-[PHI]B expression and protected against isoproterenol-induced MI. Our results indicate that metformin mediates a cardioprotective effect against isoproterenol-induced MI via antioxidant activity and modulation of the NF-[PHI]B signaling pathway. This suggests that metformin would be beneficial in MI treatment.
Techniques that may be used for detecting a primary content (e.g., a web page) that the user is viewing and presenting one or more pieces of supplemental content (e.g., social media data) together with the primary content. The supplemental content presented to the user together with the primary content may be content that is matched to the primary content and therefore detected to be relevant to the user. Detection of primary content and matching to supplemental content may be carried out based on a comparison of entities related to the primary and supplemental content. In some embodiments, an analysis of the primary content for entities may include ordering entities according to significance in the primary content and selecting top entities for comparison. Also, in some embodiments, multiple pieces of supplemental content may be displayed to a user categorized based on entity.
Hattab, Danah S. Al-, Safi, Hamza A., Nagalingam, Raghu S., Bagchi, Rushita A., Stecy, Matthew T., and Czubryt, Michael P.
American Journal of Physiology (Consolidated). Sept, 2018, Vol. 315 Issue 3, H658, 11 p.
Cell differentiation -- Research, Biological control systems -- Research, and Transcription factors -- Research
Numerous physiological and pathological events, from organ development to cancer and fibrosis, are characterized by an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereby adherent epithelial cells convert to migratory mesenchymal cells. During cardiac development, proepicardial organ epithelial cells undergo EMT to generate fibroblasts. Subsequent stress or damage induces further phenotype conversion of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, causing fibrosis via synthesis of an excessive extracellular matrix. We have previously shown that the transcription factor scleraxis is both sufficient and necessary for the conversion of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and found that scleraxis knockout reduced cardiac fibroblast numbers by 50%, possibly via EMT attenuation. Scleraxis induced expression of the EMT transcriptional regulators Twistl and Snai 1 via an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that scleraxis binds to E-box consensus sequences within the Twistl and Snail promoters to transactivate these genes directly. Scleraxis upregulates expression of both genes in A549 epithelial cells and in cardiac myofibroblasts. Transforming growth factor-[beta] induces EMT, fibrosis, and scleraxis expression, and we found that transforming growth factor-[beta]-mediated upregulation of Twistl and Snail completely depends on the presence of scleraxis. Snail knockdown upregulated the epithelial marker E-cadherin; however, this effect was lost after scleraxis overexpression, suggesting that scleraxis may repress E-cadherin expression. Together, these results indicate that scleraxis can regulate EMT via direct transactivation of the Twist 1 and Snail genes. Given the role of scleraxis in also driving the myofibroblast phenotype, scleraxis appears to be a critical controller of fibroblast genesis and fate in the myocardium and thus may play key roles in wound healing and fibrosis. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The molecular mechanism by which the transcription factor scleraxis mediates Twist1 and Snai1 gene expression was determined. These results reveal a novel means of transcriptional regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and demonstrate that transforming growth factor-[beta]-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is dependent on scleraxis. providing a potential target for controlling this process. epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; epithelial cells; fibroblasts; gene regulation; transcription doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00092.2018.
TechTrends: For Leaders in Education & Training. Sept, 2018, Vol. 62 Issue 5, p432, 6 p.
To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11528-018-0323-4 Byline: Carmen Richardson (1), Danah Henriksen (2) Author Affiliation: (1) 0000 0001 2150 1785, grid.17088.36, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA (2) 0000 0001 2151 2636, grid.215654.1, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Article History: Registration Date: 21/07/2018 Online Date: 26/07/2018
Warr, Melissa, Henriksen, Danah, and Mishra, Punya
TechTrends: For Leaders in Education & Training. March 2018, Vol. 62 Issue 2, p137, 6 p.
To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11528-018-0251-3 Byline: Melissa Warr (1), Danah Henriksen (1), Punya Mishra (1) Author Affiliation: (1) 0000 0001 2151 2636, grid.215654.1, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Article History: Registration Date: 13/01/2018 Online Date: 29/01/2018