DCN-217004, Coal workers pneumoconiosis, Clinical diagnosis, Chest X rays, Clinical techniques, Pulmonary function tests, Blood gas analysis, Cigarette smoking, Coal miners, and X ray diagnosis
High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in coal miners with coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) were studied. Associations between the HRCT findings and chest X-ray, spirometric, and blood gas analyses were also examined. The study group consisted of 21 coal miners being evaluated for CWP. Chest X-rays were obtained and read for CWP using ILO criteria. HRCT of the upper, mid, and lung regions was performed. Spirometric testing was done. Arterial blood samples were collected to determine resting pH, and oxygen (PaO2) and carbon-dioxide (PaCO2) tension. Information on occupational history and smoking habits was obtained. Nine workers had 0/0 category CWP, five 0/1 category CWP, six 1/0 category CWP, and one had 2/1 category CWP. Four of the 0/0 workers had unequivocal nodular opacities visible by HRCT. One had equivocal nodular opacities, two 0/1 workers had unequivocal nodules and three had equivocal nodular opacities on their HRCT scans. Five 1/0 workers had unequivocal opacities and one had equivocal opacities visible by HRCT. HRCT of the worker with category 2/1 CWP indicated definite nodular opacities. Four workers with 0/0 category CWP, two with 0/1 CWP, and one with 1/0 CWP had HRCT evidence of focal emphysema. Spirometric data and arterial pH, PaO2, and PaCO2 values did not differ significantly between workers with or without radiological evidence of CWP or lung nodules visible by HRCT. Pulmonary function, PaO2, and PaCO2 did not differ between those with or without focal emphysema indicated by HRCT. One second forced expiratory volumes and midexpiratory flows were significantly lower in nonsmokers than current or former smokers. Radiographically visible CWP was significantly associated with smoking, but not years of coal mining. HRCT evidence of lung nodulation was marginally significantly associated with smoking. HRCT indicated emphysema was not associated with smoking. The authors conclude that HRCT is more sensitive than chest X-rays for detecting evidence of coal dust accumulation in the lung parenchyma and focal emphysema. HRCT findings do not correlate with pulmonary function and arterial blood gas data./STANDARDS
Population-based studies of women with breast cancer commonly utilize information culled from pathology reports rather than central pathology review. The reliability of this information, particularly with regard to tumor biomarker results, is of concern. To address this, we evaluated the concordance between estrogen receptor (ER) results as determined from the original pathology reports and ER results obtained on the same specimens following testing in a single laboratory. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed from paraffin blocks of 3,167 breast cancers that developed in women enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study. ER immunostains were performed on all TMA sections in single run. Results of ER immunostains performed on the TMA sections were compared with ER assay results abstracted from pathology reports. Among 1,851 cases of invasive breast cancer in which both ER results from pathology reports and central ER test results were available, the reported ER status and the ER status as determined from immunostains on TMAs were in agreement in 1,651 cases (87.3 %; kappa value 0.64, p<0.0001). When the comparison was restricted to ER assays originally performed by immunohistochemistry, the agreement rate increased to 92.3% (kappa value 0.78, p<0.0001). These results provide a framework for the accuracy of ER results abstracted from clinical records. Further, they suggest that utilizing ER assay results from pathology reports is a reasonable, albeit imperfect, alternative to central laboratory ER testing for large, population-based studies of patients with breast cancer.
PESTAB The effect of cotoran (fluometuron) on the growth of Aspergillus flavus was studied in soil and liquid cultures. In liquid cultures the growth of the fungus increased with increasing herbicide concentration, as indicated by the increased mycelial dry weight. In soil cultures the production of carbon dioxide increased with increasing herbicide concentration and also with time. The pH decreased with increasing herbicide concentration, while the utilization of inorganic phosphorus was not significantly affected. Field rate concentrations of fluometuran would not enhance the growth of A. flavus.
The contribution of age, dust exposure, and cigarette smoking to the profile of the bituminous coal miner who satisfies the pulmonary criteria for disability was assessed. The records of 1000 consecutive coal miners applying for benefits under the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act were examined and separated into two groups based on coal dust accumulation (as indicated by pneumoconiosis on chest radiographs). The federal spirometric criteria for disability identified 55 of 316 miners in the group without pneumoconiosis (14.5 percent) and 99 of 684 miners with pneumoconiosis (17.4 percent) as potentially eligible for an award. In both groups, those miners potentially eligible for financial award smoked more cigarettes than did their counterparts. The authors conclude that in the case of bituminous coal miners, the present federal legislation intended to identify and remunerate those who suffer lung impairment from chronic occupational exposure to coal dust is biased in favor of those who sustain additional damage to their ventilatory capacity by cigarette smoking.
Baer HJ, Collins LC, Connolly JL, Colditz GA, Schnitt SJ, Tamimi RM, Baer, Heather J, Collins, Laura C, Connolly, James L, Colditz, Graham A, Schnitt, Stuart J, and Tamimi, Rulla M
Cancer (0008543X). 4/1/2009, Vol. 115 Issue 7, p1404-1411. 8p.
Background: Lobules in normal breast tissue can be classified based on their degree of development, which may affect their susceptibility to carcinogenesis. However, few epidemiologic studies to date have addressed this.Methods: The authors examined the association between lobule type and subsequent breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study of benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer within the Nurses' Health Studies (200 cases, 915 controls). Benign breast biopsy slides were reviewed by pathologists, and normal terminal duct lobular units were classified as having no type 1 lobules, mixed lobule types, or predominant type 1 and no type 3 lobules. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between lobule type and breast cancer risk.Results: Women with predominant type 1 and no type 3 lobules (54 cases, 321 controls) had a decreased risk of breast cancer compared with those with no type 1 lobules or mixed lobule types (OR=0.63; 95% CI, 0.44-0.91), although this was attenuated after adjustment for histologic category of BBD (OR=0.71; 95% CI, 0.49-1.02). Having predominant type 1 lobules and no type 3 lobules was associated with a similar risk reduction for all categories of BBD (nonproliferative: OR=0.73 [95% CI, 0.36-1.50]; proliferative without atypia: OR=0.80 [95% CI, 0.47-1.35]; and atypical hyperplasia: OR=0.61 [95% CI, 0.28-1.35]).Conclusions: These results provided preliminary evidence that lobule type may be an important marker of breast cancer risk in women with BBD. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Collins LC, Marotti JD, Baer HJ, Tamimi RM, Collins, Laura C, Marotti, Jonathan D, Baer, Heather J, and Tamimi, Rulla M
JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2/6/2008, Vol. 100 Issue 3, p218-221. 4p.
We compared estrogen receptor (ER) assay results abstracted from pathology reports with ER results determined on the same specimens by a central laboratory with an immunohistochemical assay. Paraffin sections were cut from tissue microarrays containing 3093 breast cancer specimens from women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study, 1851 of which had both pathology reports and tissue available for central laboratory testing. All sections were immunostained for ER at the same time. The original assays were biochemical for 1512 (81.7%) of the 1851 specimens, immunohistochemical for 336 (18.2%), and immunofluorescent for three (0.2%). ER results from pathology reports and repeat central laboratory testing were in agreement for 87.3% of specimens (1615 of the 1851 specimens; kappa statistic = 0.64, P < .001). When the comparison was restricted to the specimens for which the ER assays were originally performed by immunohistochemistry, the agreement rate increased to 92.3% of specimens (310 of the 336 specimens; kappa statistic = 0.78, P < .001). Thus, ER assay results from pathology reports appear to be a reasonable alternative to central laboratory ER testing for large, population-based studies of patients with breast cancer. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]