Jessica T. Mhlongo, Ayman Y. Waddad, Fernando Albericio, and Beatriz G. de la Torre
Advanced Science, Vol 10, Iss 26, Pp n/a-n/a (2023)
antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI), microbial resistance, synergy, and Science
Abstract Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are essential elements of thehost defense system. Characterized by heterogenous structures and broad‐spectrumaction, they are promising candidates for combating multidrug resistance. Thecombined use of AMPs with other antimicrobial agents provides a new arsenal ofdrugs with synergistic action, thereby overcoming the drawback of monotherapiesduring infections. AMPs kill microbes via pore formation, thus inhibitingintracellular functions. This mechanism of action by AMPs is an advantage overantibiotics as it hinders the development of drug resistance. The synergisticeffect of AMPs will allow the repurposing of conventional antimicrobials andenhance their clinical outcomes, reduce toxicity, and, most significantly,prevent the development of resistance. In this review, various synergies ofAMPs with antimicrobials and miscellaneous agents are discussed. The effect ofstructural diversity and chemical modification on AMP properties is firstaddressed and then different combinations that can lead to synergistic action,whether this combination is between AMPs and antimicrobials, or AMPs andmiscellaneous compounds, are attended. This review can serve as guidance whenredesigning and repurposing the use of AMPs in combination with other antimicrobialagents for enhanced clinical outcomes.
Used in solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) for peptides with an acid termination, the 2-chlorotrityl chloride (2-CTC) resin is highly susceptible to moisture, leading to reduced resin loading and lower synthetic yields. It is therefore recommended that the resin be activated with thionyl chloride (SOCl2) before peptide assembly. Here we present an optimized procedure for resin activation that minimizes the use of SOCl2 as the activation reagent and reduces the activation time. Additionally, we demonstrate the feasibility of reusing the 2-CTC resin when following the activation protocol, achieving comparable results to the first usage of the resin. Moreover, we achieved different degrees of resin activation by varying the amount of SOCl2. For instance, the use of 2% SOCl2 in anhydrous dichloromethane (DCM) allowed up to 44% activation of the resin, thereby making it suitable for the synthesis of longer peptides. Alternatively, employing 25% SOCl2 in anhydrous DCM resulted in up to 80% activation with a reaction time of only 5 min in both cases.
Babita Kushwaha, Sinenhlanhla N. Mthembu, Anamika Sharma, Fernando Albericio, and Beatriz G. de la Torre
Molecules, Vol 28, Iss 14, p 5489 (2023)
cysteine, disulfide-reducing agents, monothiols, dithiols, phosphines, Organic chemistry, and QD241-441
Here, we report the synthesis of disulfide-reducing agents 2-(dibenzylamino) propane-1,3-dithiol (DPDT) and 2-(dibenzylamino)-2-methylpropane-1,3-dithiol (DMPDT) from serinol and methyl serinol, respectively. DPDT was found to show greater stability than DMPDT. Hence, the effectiveness of DPDT as a reducing agent was evaluated in both liquid and solid phases. The reducing capacity of this agent was comparable to that of DTT.
Ihab Shawish, Mohamed S. Nafie, Assem Barakat, Ali Aldalbahi, Hessa H. Al-Rasheed, M. Ali, Walhan Alshaer, Mazhar Al Zoubi, Samha Al Ayoubi, Beatriz G. De La Torre, Fernando Albericio, and Ayman El-Faham
Frontiers in Chemistry, Vol 10 (2023)
pyrazolyl-s-triazine, indole, anticancer profile, EGFR/CDK-2, apoptosis, Chemistry, and QD1-999
Alexander C. Martins, Fernando Albericio, and Beatriz G. de la Torre
Biomedicines, Vol 11, Iss 5, p 1434 (2023)
monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug conjugate, first approval, FDA, Biologics, anacaulase, Biology (General), and QH301-705.5
The year 2022 witnessed the control of the COVID-19 pandemic in most countries through social and hygiene measures and also vaccination campaigns. It also saw a decrease in total approvals by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Nevertheless, there was no fall in the Biologics class, which was boosted through the authorization of 15 novel molecules, thus maintaining the figures achieved in previous years. Indeed, the decrease in approvals was only for the category of small molecules. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) continued to be the drug class with the most approvals, and cancer remained the most targeted disease, followed by autoimmune conditions, as in previous years. Interestingly, the FDA gave the green light to a remarkable number of bispecific Biologics (four), the highest number in recent years. Indeed, 2022 was another year without the approval of an antimicrobial Biologic, although important advancements were made in targeting new diseases, which are discussed herein. In this work, we only analyze the Biologics authorized in 2022. Furthermore, we also consider the orphan drugs authorized. We not only apply a quantitative analysis to this year’s harvest, but also compare the efficacy of the Biologics with those authorized in previous years. On the basis of their chemical structure, the Biologics addressed fall into the following classes: monoclonal antibodies; antibody-drug conjugates; and proteins/enzymes.
Ihab Shawish, Mohamed S. Nafie, Assem Barakat, Ali Aldalbahi, Hessa H. Al-Rasheed, M. Ali, Walhan Alshaer, Mazhar Al Zoubi, Samha Al Ayoubi, Beatriz G. De la Torre, Fernando Albericio, and Ayman El-Faham
Frontiers in Chemistry, Vol 10 (2022)
pyrazolyl-s-triazine, indole, anticancer profile, EGFR/CDK-2, apoptosis, Chemistry, and QD1-999
A series of pyrazolyl-s-triazine compounds with an indole motif was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for anticancer activity targeting dual EGFR and CDK-2 inhibitors. The compounds were tested for cytotoxicity using the MTT assay. Compounds 3h, 3i, and 3j showed promising cytotoxic activity against two cancer cell lines, namely A549, MCF-7, and HDFs (non-cancerous human dermal fibroblasts). Compound 3j was the most active candidate against A549, with an IC50 of 2.32 ± 0.21 μM. Compounds 3h and 3i were found to be the most active hybrids against MCF-7 and HDFs, with an IC50 of 2.66 ± 0.26 μM and 3.78 ± 0.55 μM, respectively. Interestingly, 3i showed potent EGFR inhibition, with an IC50 of 34.1 nM compared to Erlotinib (IC50 = 67.3 nM). At 10 μM, this candidate caused 93.6% and 91.4% of EGFR and CDK-2 inhibition, respectively. Furthermore, 3i enhanced total lung cancer cell apoptosis 71.6-fold (43.7% compared to 0.61% for the control). Given the potent cytotoxicity exerted by 3i through apoptosis-mediated activity, this compound emerges as a promising target-oriented anticancer agent.
Othman Al Musaimi, Danah Al Shaer, Fernando Albericio, and Beatriz G. de la Torre
Pharmaceuticals, Vol 16, Iss 3, p 336 (2023)
drugs, FDA, oligonucleotides, peptides, vutrisiran, gadopiclenol, Medicine, Pharmacy and materia medica, and RS1-441
A total of 37 new drug entities were approved in 2022; although that year registered the lowest number of drug approvals since 2016, the TIDES class consolidated its presence with a total of five authorizations (four peptides and one oligonucleotide). Interestingly, 23 out of 37 drugs were first-in-class and thus received fast-track designation by the FDA in categories such as breakthrough therapy, priority review voucher, orphan drug, accelerated approval, and so on. Here, we analyze the TIDES approved in 2022 on the basis of their chemical structure, medical target, mode of action, administration route, and common adverse effects.
antibodies, biologics, chemical entities, fluorine-based drugs, imaging, natural products, Organic chemistry, and QD241-441
While 2021 ended with the world engulfed in the COVID-19 Omicron wave, 2022 has ended in almost all countries, except China, with COVID-19 being likened to the flu. In this context, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized only 37 new drugs this year compared to an average of 52 in the last four years. Thus 2022 is the second lowest harvest after 2016 in the last six years. This ranking may be transient and will be confirmed in the coming years. In this regard, the reduction in the number of drugs accepted by the FDA this year applies only to the so-called small molecules as there has been no variation in the respective numbers of biologics or TIDES (peptides and oligonucleotides). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) continue to be the class with the most drugs authorized (9), while proteins/enzymes (5) and an antibody–drug conjugate complete the biologics harvest. In 2022, five TIDES and seven drugs inspired by natural products have received the green light, thus showing the same tendency as in previous years. Finally, pharmaceutical agents with nitrogen aromatic heterocycles and/or fluorine atoms continue to be predominant among small molecules this year. Furthermore, three drugs have been approved for imaging, reinforcing the trend in recent years for this class of treatments. A keyword in 2022 is bispecificity since four drugs have this property (two mAbs, one protein, and one peptide). Herein, the 37 new drugs approved by the FDA in 2022 are analyzed. On the basis of chemical structure alone, these drugs are classified as the following: biologics (antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, proteins/enzymes), TIDES (peptide and oligonucleotides), combined drugs, natural products; nitrogen aromatic heterocycles, fluorine-containing molecules, and other small molecules.
Ashish Kumar, Anamika Sharma, Beatriz G. de la Torre, and Fernando Albericio
Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews, Vol 14, Iss 3, Pp 545-550 (2021)
fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (fmoc), green solvent, peptide, polystyrene resin, supported chemistry, Science, Chemistry, and QD1-999
PolarClean, a green solvent prepared through the valorization of a byproduct of Nylon-66 manufacturing, shows an excellent capacity to dissolve all Fmoc-amino acids and key coupling reagents and additives. It can also swell polystyrene and ChemMatrix, the two resins most widely used in solid-phase peptide synthesis. The synthesis of model peptides has been carried out, rendering the target peptide as a major component. The performance of PolarClean demonstrates its utility in the toolbox for Green Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis.
Isabel Pérez-Guillén, Òscar Domènech, Adrià Botet-Carreras, Alexandra Merlos, Josep M. Sierra, Fernando Albericio, Beatriz G. de la Torre, M. Teresa Montero, Miguel Viñas, and Jordi H. Borrell
Pharmaceutics, Vol 14, Iss 10, p 2191 (2022)
super-cationic peptides, atomic force microscopy, anisotropy, antimicrobials interactions, Pharmacy and materia medica, and RS1-441
The super-cationic peptide dendrimers (SCPD) family is a valuable class of antimicrobial peptide candidates for the future development of antibacterial agents against multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. The deep knowledge of their mechanism of action is a major challenge in research, since it may be the basis for future modifications/optimizations. In this work we have explored the interaction between SCPD and membranes through biophysical and microbiological approaches in the case of the G1OLO-L2OL2 peptide. Results support the idea that the peptide is not only adsorbed or close to the surface of the membrane but associated/absorbed to some extent to the hydrophobic-hydrophilic region of the phospholipids. The presence of low concentrations of the peptide at the surface level is concomitant with destabilization of the cell integrity and this may contribute to osmotic stress, although other mechanisms of action cannot be ruled out.
Herein we report a practical approach for peptide synthesis using second-generation fibrous polyacrylamide resin (Li-resin, “Li” is coming from the name of its inventor, Yongfu Li). This resin with the corresponding handle was used for solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) using a fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) approach. We reveal that the most appropriate mixing and filtration strategy when using amino-Li-resin in SPPS is via shaking and gravity filtration, instead of mechanical stirring and suction filtration used with other resins. The strategy was demonstrated with the SPPS of H-Tyr-Ile-Ile-Phe-Leu-NH2, which contains the difficult sequence Ile-Ile. The peptide was obtained with excellent purity and yield. We are confident that this strategy will be rapidly implemented by other peptide laboratories.
Alexander C. Martins, Mariana Y. Oshiro, Fernando Albericio, Beatriz G. de la Torre, Gustavo José V. Pereira, and Rodrigo V. Gonzaga
Biomedicines, Vol 10, Iss 9, p 2325 (2022)
Food and Drug Administration, FDA approvals, monoclonal antibody, antibody–drug conjugate, first global approval, biological drugs, Biology (General), and QH301-705.5
Despite belonging to a relatively new class of pharmaceuticals, biological drugs have been used since the 1980s, when they brought about a breakthrough in the treatment of chronic diseases, especially cancer. They conquered a large space in the pipeline of the pharmaceutical industry and boosted the innovation portfolio and arsenal of therapeutic compounds available. Here, we report on biological drug approvals by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from 2015 to 2021. The number of drugs included in this class grew over this period, totaling 90 approvals, with an average of 13 authorizations per year. This figure contrasts with previous periods, which registered between 2 and 8 approvals per year. We highlight the great potential and advantages of biological drugs. In this context, these therapeutics show high efficacy and high selectivity, and they have brought about a significant increase in patient survival and a reduction of adverse reactions. The development and production of biopharmaceuticals pose a major challenge because these processes require cutting-edge technology, thereby making the drugs very expensive. However, we believe that, in the near future, biological medicines will be more accessible and new drugs belonging to this class will become available as new technologies emerge. Such advances will enhance the production of these biopharmaceuticals, thereby making the process increasingly profitable and less expensive, thereby bringing about greater availability of these drugs.
Ihab Shawish, Assem Barakat, Ali Aldalbahi, Walhan Alshaer, Fadwa Daoud, Dana A. Alqudah, Mazhar Al Zoubi, Ma’mon M. Hatmal, Mohamed S. Nafie, Matti Haukka, Anamika Sharma, Beatriz G. de la Torre, Fernando Albericio, and Ayman El-Faham
Pharmaceutics, Vol 14, Iss 1558, p 1558 (2022)
one-pot synthesis, DMF-DMA, pyrazolyl-s-triazine, anticancer profile, EGFR/PI3K/AKT/mTOR, apoptosis, Pharmacy and materia medica, and RS1-441
Here, we described the synthesis of novel pyrazole-s-triazine derivatives via an easy one-pot procedure for the reaction of β-dicarbonyl compounds (ethylacetoacetate, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexadione or 1,3-cyclohexadionone) with N,N-dimethylformamide dimethylacetal, followed by addition of 2-hydrazinyl-4,6-disubstituted-s-triazine either in ethanol-acetic acid or neat acetic acid to afford a novel pyrazole and pyrazole-fused cycloalkanone systems. The synthetic protocol proved to be efficient, with a shorter reaction time and high chemical yield with broad substrates. The new pyrazolyl-s-triazine derivatives were tested against the following cell lines: MCF-7 (breast cancer); MDA-MB-231 (triple-negative breast cancer); U-87 MG (glioblastoma); A549 (non-small cell lung cancer); PANC-1 (pancreatic cancer); and human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). The cell viability assay revealed that most of the s-triazine compounds induced cytotoxicity in all the cell lines tested. However, compounds 7d, 7f and 7c, which all have a piperidine or morpholine moiety with one aniline ring or two aniline rings in their structures, were the most effective. Compounds 7f and 7d showed potent EGFR inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 59.24 and 70.3 nM, respectively, compared to Tamoxifen (IC50 value of 69.1 nM). Compound 7c exhibited moderate activity, with IC50 values of 81.6 nM. Interestingly, hybrids 7d and 7f exerted remarkable PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitory activity with 0.66/0.82/0.80 and 0.35/0.56/0.66-fold, respectively, by inhibiting their concentrations to 4.39, 37.3, and 69.3 ng/mL in the 7d-treatment, and to 2.39, 25.34 and 57.6 ng/mL in the 7f-treatment compared to the untreated control.
M. Ali, Assem Barakat, Ayman El-Faham, Hessa H. Al-Rasheed, Kholoud Dahlous, Abdullah Mohammed Al-Majid, Anamika Sharma, Sammer Yousuf, Mehar Sanam, Zaheer Ul-Haq, M. Iqbal Choudhary, Beatriz G. de la Torre, and Fernando Albericio
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, Vol 35, Iss 1, Pp 692-701 (2020)
A new series of thiobarbituric (thiopyrimidine trione) enamine derivatives and its analogues barbituric acid derivatives was synthesised, characterised, and screen for in vitro evaluation of α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition and anti-glycation activity. This series of compounds were found to inhibit α-glucosidase activity in a reversible mixed-type manner with IC50 between 264.07 ± 1.87 and 448.63 ± 2.46 µM. Molecular docking studies indicated that compounds of 3g, 3i, 3j, and 5 are located close to the active site of α-glucosidase, which may cover the active pocket, thereby inhibiting the binding of the substrate to the enzyme. Thiopyrimidine trione derivatives also inhibited the generation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which cause long-term complications in diabetes. While, compounds 3a–k, 5, and 6 showed significant to moderate anti-glycation activity (IC50 = 31.5 ± 0.81 to 554.76 ± 9.1 µM).
Similar to last year, 2021 will be remembered for the COVID-19 pandemic. Although five vaccines have been approved by the two most important drug regulatory agencies, namely the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the pandemic has still not been brought under control. However, despite the context of a global pandemic, 2021 has been an excellent year with respect to drug approvals by the FDA. In 2021, 50 drugs have been authorized, making it the fourth-best year after 2018 (59 drugs) and 1996 and 2020 (53 each). Regarding biologics, 2021 has been the third-best year to date, with 14 approvals, and it has also witnessed the authorization of 36 small molecules. Of note, nine peptides, eight monoclonal antibodies, two antibody-drug conjugates, and two oligonucleotides have been approved this year. From them, five of the molecules are pegylated and three of them highly pegylated. The presence of nitrogen aromatic heterocycles and/or fluorine atoms are once again predominant among the so-called small molecules. This report analyzes the 50 new drugs approved in 2021 from a chemical perspective, as it did for those authorized in the previous five years. On the basis of chemical structure alone, the drugs that received approval in 2021 are classified as the following: biologics (antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, enzymes, and pegylated proteins); TIDES (peptide and oligonucleotides); combined drugs; natural products; nitrogen aromatic heterocycles; fluorine-containing molecules; and other small molecules.
Danah Al Shaer, Othman Al Musaimi, Fernando Albericio, and Beatriz G. de la Torre
Pharmaceuticals, Vol 15, Iss 2, p 222 (2022)
drugs, FDA, oligonucleotides, peptides, antibody-drug conjugate, inclisiran, Medicine, Pharmacy and materia medica, and RS1-441
From the medical, pharmaceutical, and social perspectives, 2021 has been a year dominated by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, despite this global health crisis, the pharmaceutical industry has continued its endeavors, and 2021 could be considered an excellent year in terms of the drugs accepted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Thus, during this year, the FDA has approved 50 novel drugs, of which 36 are new chemical entities and 14 biologics. It has also authorized 10 TIDES (8 peptides, 2 oligonucleotides), in addition to 2 antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) whose structures contain peptides. Thus, TIDES have accounted for about 24% of the approvals in the various drug categories. Importantly, this percentage has surpassed the figure in 2020 (10%), thus reflecting the remarkable success of TIDES. In this review, the approved TIDE-based drugs are analyzed on the basis of their chemical structure, medical target, mode of action, administration route, and adverse effects.
Damilola C. Akintayo, Beatriz G. de la Torre, Yongfu Li, and Fernando Albericio
Polymers, Vol 14, Iss 5, p 928 (2022)
amino-Li-resin, solid-phase peptide synthesis, polyacrylamide, fibers, Organic chemistry, and QD241-441
Amino-Li-resin is a new and unique polyacrylamide resin presented in the form of fibers and is found to be well suited for solid-phase peptide chemistry. Although amino-Li-resin swells much better in polar solvents, it is also compatible with some non-polar solvents. It comes with a high loading of functional amino groups, thus maximizing its productivity in terms of the amount of peptide per gram of resin. In addition to its mechanical stability, this resin shows excellent stability in basic and acidic reagents; thus, allowing its broad applicability for the synthesis of a wide range of biomolecules. Finally, the appropriateness of amino-Li-resin for solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) has been demonstrated for the synthesis of several model peptides, including difficult sequences and those containing hindered amino acids, all of which afforded excellent crude purity, as shown by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis.