Nutrition, obesity, metabolic disorders, Nutrition, obésité, maladies métaboliques, Sciences biologiques et medicales, Biological and medical sciences, Sciences biologiques fondamentales et appliquees. Psychologie, Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology, Vertebres: anatomie et physiologie, organisme dans son ensemble ou etude de plusieurs organes ou systemes, Vertebrates: anatomy and physiology, studies on body, several organs or systems, Alimentation. Comportement alimentaire, Feeding. Feeding behavior, Alimentation, Feeding, Alimentación, Appareil urinaire, Urinary system, Aparato urinario, Cytokine, Citoquina, Lipide, Lipids, Lípido, Acide gras polyinsaturé, Polyunsaturated fatty acid, Acido graso poliinsaturado, Inflammation, Inflamación, Interleukine 6, Interleukin 6, Interleuquina 6, Nutrition, Nutrición, Protéine C réactive, C reactive protein, Proteína reactiva, Rein, Kidney, Riñón, Régime alimentaire, Diet, Régimen alimentario, Transplantation, Trasplantación, C-reactive protein, diet, interleukin-6, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and renal transplantation
Objective: n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation reduces systemic inflammation and improves renal and cardiovascular prognosis in kidney transplant recipients. However, patient compliance is poor because bad-tasting fish oils are used as an n-3 PUFA source. Therefore, we explored whether the beneficial effects of n-3 can be obtained by administering a diet based on n-3-rich foods. Methods: Sixty kidney transplant recipients were assigned to 2 different groups: the CON group (n = 28), which continued with their usual diet, and the DIET group (n = 32), which followed an n-3-rich diet for 6 months. Twenty-six patients in the DIET group and 24 in the CON group completed the study. End points of the study were changes in n-3 PUFAs intake, n-6:n-3 PUFAs ratio, systemic inflammation markers, and renal function during the 6 months of the dietary treatment. Results: Three and 6 months after the beginning of the study, n-3 PUFA intake was significantly higher and the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was markedly lower than baseline in the DIET group. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and interleukin (IL)-6 decreased as well. IL-6 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were also lower than at the beginning of the study. Proteinuria and microalbuminuria were reduced by 50% with respect to the baseline, whereas glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was unchanged. No change in the aforementioned parameters was observed in the CON group throughout the study. Conclusion: In long-term kidney transplant recipients a naturally n-3 PUFA-rich dietary plan causes an increase in n-3 PUFA intake, decreases systemic inflammation and proteinuria, and improves plasma lipid pattern.