HAEMOPHILUS diseases, HAEMOPHILUS influenzae, BACTEREMIA, SEROTYPES, and INTENSIVE care units
Background: There has been dramatic reduction in Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) since introduction of Hib vaccines, but children still experience serious invasive Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) disease caused by various serotype and non-typeable bacteria. The object of this study was to describe the serotype distribution and clinical spectrum of Hi bacteremia in children admitted to Canadian hospitals. Methods: All children with Hi bacteremia admitted 2013 through 2017 to 10 centres across Canada were included. Demographic, clinical, treatment and outcome data were collected. Results: Haemophilus influenzae bacteremia occurred in 118 children of median age 12 months (inter-quartile range: 7–48 months). Forty-three (36%) isolates were non-typeable (NTHi) and 8 were not typed. Of the 67 typeable (THi), Hia (H. influenzae serotype a) (n=36, 54%), Hif (serotype f) (n=19, 26%) and Hib (serotype b) (n=9, 13%) dominated. The THi was more likely than NTHi bacteremia to present as meningitis (p<0.001), particularly serotype a (p=0.04) and less likely to present as pneumonia (p<0.001). Complicated disease (defined as intensive care unit admission, need for surgery, long-term sequelae or death) occurred in 31 (26%) cases and were more likely to have meningitis (p<0.001) than were those with uncomplicated disease. Conclusion: In the era of efficacious conjugate Hib vaccines, NTHi, Hia and Hif have emerged as the leading causes of invasive Hi in Canadian children, with Hia being most likely to result in meningitis and complicated disease. A vaccine for all NTHi and THi would be ideal, but knowledge of the current disease burden from circulating strains will inform prioritization of vaccine targets. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Alqedari H, Altabtbaei K, Espinoza JL, Bin-Hasan S, Alghounaim M, Alawady A, Altabtabae A, AlJamaan S, Devarajan S, AlShammari T, Eid MB, Matsuoka M, Jang H, Dupont CL, and Freire M
BioRxiv : the preprint server for biology [bioRxiv] 2023 May 03. Date of Electronic Publication: 2023 May 03.
Established evidence indicates that oral microbiota plays a crucial role in modulating host immune responses to viral infection. Following Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 - SARS-CoV-2 - there are coordinated microbiome and inflammatory responses within the mucosal and systemic compartments that are unknown. The specific roles that the oral microbiota and inflammatory cytokines play in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 are yet to be explored. We evaluated the relationships between the salivary microbiome and host parameters in different groups of COVID-19 severity based on their Oxygen requirement. Saliva and blood samples (n = 80) were collected from COVID-19 and from non-infected individuals. We characterized the oral microbiomes using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and evaluated saliva and serum cytokines using Luminex multiplex analysis. Alpha diversity of the salivary microbial community was negatively associated with COVID-19 severity. Integrated cytokine evaluations of saliva and serum showed that the oral host response was distinct from the systemic response. The hierarchical classification of COVID-19 status and respiratory severity using multiple modalities separately (i.e., microbiome, salivary cytokines, and systemic cytokines) and simultaneously (i.e., multi-modal perturbation analyses) revealed that the microbiome perturbation analysis was the most informative for predicting COVID-19 status and severity, followed by the multi-modal. Our findings suggest that oral microbiome and salivary cytokines may be predictive of COVID-19 status and severity, whereas atypical local mucosal immune suppression and systemic hyperinflammation provide new cues to understand the pathogenesis in immunologically naïve populations. Competing Interests: Competing Interest Statement: All authors report there are no competing interests to disclose.
Rabaan AA, Sulaiman T, Al-Ahmed SH, Buhaliqah ZA, Buhaliqah AA, AlYuosof B, Alfaresi M, Al Fares MA, Alwarthan S, Alkathlan MS, Almaghrabi RS, Abuzaid AA, Altowaileb JA, Al Ibrahim M, AlSalman EM, Alsalman F, Alghounaim M, Bueid AS, Al-Omari A, and Mohapatra RK
Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland) [Antibiotics (Basel)] 2023 Mar 18; Vol. 12 (3). Date of Electronic Publication: 2023 Mar 18.
Fungal infections are becoming one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in people with weakened immune systems. Mycoses are becoming more common, despite greater knowledge and better treatment methods, due to the regular emergence of resistance to the antifungal medications used in clinical settings. Antifungal therapy is the mainstay of patient management for acute and chronic mycoses. However, the limited availability of antifungal drug classes limits the range of available treatments. Additionally, several drawbacks to treating mycoses include unfavourable side effects, a limited activity spectrum, a paucity of targets, and fungal resistance, all of which continue to be significant issues in developing antifungal drugs. The emergence of antifungal drug resistance has eliminated accessible drug classes as treatment choices, which significantly compromises the clinical management of fungal illnesses. In some situations, the emergence of strains resistant to many antifungal medications is a major concern. Although new medications have been developed to address this issue, antifungal drug resistance has grown more pronounced, particularly in patients who need long-term care or are undergoing antifungal prophylaxis. Moreover, the mechanisms that cause resistance must be well understood, including modifications in drug target affinities and abundances, along with biofilms and efflux pumps that diminish intracellular drug levels, to find novel antifungal drugs and drug targets. In this review, different classes of antifungal agents, and their resistance mechanisms, have been discussed. The latter part of the review focuses on the strategies by which we can overcome this serious issue of antifungal resistance in humans.
Ali H, Alterki A, Sindhu S, Alahmad B, Hammad M, Al-Sabah S, Alghounaim M, Jamal MH, Aldei A, Mairza MJ, Husain M, Deverajan S, Ahmad R, Cherian P, Alkhairi I, Alkandari A, Abubaker J, Abu-Farha M, and Al-Mulla F
Frontiers in immunology [Front Immunol] 2021 Nov 24; Vol. 12, pp. 752233. Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Nov 24 (Print Publication: 2021).
Adaptive Immunity immunology, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Antibodies, Neutralizing blood, Antibodies, Viral blood, COVID-19 prevention control, COVID-19 virology, Female, Humans, Immunoglobulin G blood, Immunoglobulin G immunology, Male, Middle Aged, SARS-CoV-2 genetics, SARS-CoV-2 physiology, Vaccination, Young Adult, Antibodies, Neutralizing immunology, Antibodies, Viral immunology, BNT162 Vaccine immunology, COVID-19 immunology, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 immunology, and SARS-CoV-2 immunology