Al-Masri D, Yunis R, Hollenkamp AF, Doherty CM, and Pringle JM
Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP [Phys Chem Chem Phys] 2020 Aug 24; Vol. 22 (32), pp. 18102-18113.
Ionic liquids and plastic crystals based on pyrrolidinium cations are recognised for their advantageous properties such as high conductivity, low viscosity, and good electrochemical and thermal stability. The pyrrolidinium ring can be substituted with symmetric or asymmetric alkyl chain substituents to form a range of ionic liquids or plastic crystals depending on the anion. However, reports into the use of branched alkyl chains and how this influences the material properties are limited. Here, we report the synthesis of six salts - ionic liquids and organic ionic plastic crystals - where the typically used linear propyl chain substituent is replaced by the branched alternative, isopropyl, to form the cation [C(i3)mpyr]+, in combination with six different anions: dicyanamide, (fluorosulfonyl)(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, tetrafluoroborate and hexafluorophosphate. The thermal and transport properties of these salts are compared to those of the analogous N-propyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium and N,N-diethylpyrrolidinium-based salts. Finally, a high lithium salt content ionic liquid electrolyte based on the bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt was developed. This electrolyte showed high coulombic efficiencies of lithium plating/stripping and high lithium ion transference number, making it a strong candidate for use in lithium metal batteries.
Journal of pain & palliative care pharmacotherapy [J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother] 2020 Jun; Vol. 34 (2), pp. 55-62. Date of Electronic Publication: 2020 Feb 24.
Adult, Attitude of Health Personnel, Female, Focus Groups, Humans, Nurses, Opioid-Related Disorders, Pain Management, Pharmacists, Physicians, Qatar, Qualitative Research, Cancer Pain drug therapy, Health Personnel ethics, Health Personnel psychology, and Narcotics therapeutic use
Studies have shown barriers to appropriate narcotic use in the Middle East have negatively impacted patient outcomes. This study aimed to explore health professionals' perspectives regarding opioid use for cancer patients in Qatar. Eight focus groups were conducted with physicians, pharmacists, and nurses. An eight-question topic guide framed discussions and targeted contextual barriers and cultural beliefs. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to identify the following themes: narcotic use process, patient-related factors, and healthcare professional-related factors. Laws and regulations were identified as major barriers to appropriate narcotic access, prescribing, and administration. Government-imposed restrictions on permitted dispensed quantities and associated paperwork impeded continuity of patient care and pain relief. The influence of a patient's culture underpinned patient-related barriers, including fear of addiction and family members discouraging opioid use. Fear of prescribing for patient addiction and accusation of inappropriate prescribing by authorities were identified as health professional-related barriers. Facilitators included patient and provider education, as well as the availability of specialized teams to assess and treat cancer-related pain. Findings show narcotic utilization is not simply influenced by a single factor or subset of factors but by a multitude of factors that can be both independent and interrelated.
Yunis R, Hollenkamp AF, Forsyth C, Doherty CM, Al-Masri D, and Pringle JM
Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP [Phys Chem Chem Phys] 2019 Jun 21; Vol. 21 (23), pp. 12288-12300. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 May 29.
The synthesis and characterisation of new solid-state electrolytes is a key step in advancing the development of safer and more reliable electrochemical energy storage technologies. Organic ionic plastic crystals (OIPCs) are an increasingly promising class of material for application in devices such as lithium or sodium metal batteries as they can support high ionic conductivity, with good electrochemical and thermal stability. However, the choice of OIPC-forming ions is still relatively limited. Furthermore, understanding of the influence of different cations and anions on the thermal, structural and transport properties of these materials is still in its infancy. Here we report the synthesis and in-depth characterisation of a range of new OIPCs utilising the hexamethylguanidinium cation ([HMG]) with five different anions. The thermal, structural, transport properties and free volume in the different salts have been investigated. The free volume within the salts has been investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, and the single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis of [HMG] bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([TFSI]) in phase I and II, [HMG] hexafluorophosphate ([PF 6 ]) and [HMG] tetrafluoroborate ([HMG][BF 4 ]) are reported. The HMG cation can exhibit significant disorder, which is advantageous for plasticity and future use of these materials as high ionic conductivity matrices. The bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt, [HMG][FSI], is identified as particularly promising for use as an electrolyte, with good electrochemical stability and soft mechanical properties. The findings introduce a range of new materials to the solid-state electrolyte arena, while the insights into the physico-chemical relationships in these materials will be of importance for the future development and understanding of other ionic electrolytes.