Hoskin AK, Mackey DA, Keay L, Agrawal R, and Watson S
Acta Ophthalmologica [Acta Ophthalmol] 2019 Sep; Vol. 97 (6), pp. 637-643. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Mar 25.
Eye Injuries prevention control, History, 16th Century, History, 17th Century, History, 18th Century, History, 19th Century, History, 20th Century, History, 21st Century, Eye Injuries history, Eye Protective Devices history, and Ophthalmology history
Keyboard players--Germany--Social conditions--18th century and Music--Social aspects--Germany--History--18th century
Reverence for J. S. Bach's music and its towering presence in our cultural memory have long affected how people hear his works. In his own time, however, Bach stood as just another figure among a number of composers, many of them more popular with the music-loving public. Eschewing the great composer style of music history, Andrew Talle takes us on a journey that looks at how ordinary people made music in Bach's Germany. Talle focuses in particular on the culture of keyboard playing as lived in public and private. As he ranges through a wealth of documents, instruments, diaries, account ledgers, and works of art, Talle brings a fascinating cast of characters to life. These individuals--amateur and professional performers, patrons, instrument builders, and listeners--inhabited a lost world, and Talle's deft expertise teases out the diverse roles music played in their lives and in their relationships with one another. At the same time, his nuanced recreation of keyboard playing's social milieu illuminates the era's reception of Bach's immortal works.
Women--Political activity--Europe--History--18th century, Women--Political activity--United States--History--18th century, Women--United States--Social conditions--18th century, and Women--Europe--Social conditions--18th century
Cet ouvrage porte sur le rôle social et politique des femmes dans lessociétés européenne et américaine au XVIIIe siècle. Le regard transatlantique montre la grande diversité des rôles des femmes à cette époque. Les conditions sociales et économiques des femmes influent fortement sur leurs modes de politisation et d'engagement dans la vie de la cité.Le livre montre aussi que les réalités vécues en Europe et en Amérique à cette époque peuvent différer des représentations de compassion et de bienveillance dans lesquelles les femmes étaient souvent enfermées. Le rôle social des femmes évolue à l'époque des Lumières dans un sens généralement plus libérateur pour elles, en raison, par exemple, d'une amélioration de leur accès à l'instruction, qui a mené certaines à publier leurs œuvres sous leur vrai nom.Il n'en demeure pas moins qu'elles sont restées largement soumises à cette époque à un ordre social, politique et juridique masculin, qui continuait à les cantonner dans des rôles subordonnés ou marginaux.
Horsemen and horsewomen--England--History--18th century, Horsemanship--England--History--18th century, Masculinity--England--History--18th century, and Human-animal relationships--England--History--18th century
In this study of the relationship between men and their horses in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century England, Monica Mattfeld explores the experience of horsemanship and how it defined one's gendered and political positions within society.Men of the period used horses to transform themselves, via the image of the centaur, into something other—something powerful, awe-inspiring, and mythical. Focusing on the manuals, memoirs, satires, images, and ephemera produced by some of the period's most influential equestrians, Mattfeld examines how the concepts and practices of horse husbandry evolved in relation to social, cultural, and political life. She looks closely at the role of horses in the world of Thomas Hobbes and William Cavendish; the changes in human social behavior and horse handling ushered in by elite riding houses such as Angelo's Academy and Mr. Carter's; and the public perception of equestrian endeavors, from performances at places such as Astley's Amphitheatre to the satire of Henry William Bunbury. Throughout, Mattfeld shows how horses aided the performance of idealized masculinity among communities of riders, in turn influencing how men were perceived in regard to status, reputation, and gender.Drawing on human-animal studies, gender studies, and historical studies, Becoming Centaur offers a new account of masculinity that reaches beyond anthropocentrism to consider the role of animals in shaping man.
Blacks--Medicine--West Indies--History--18th century, Traditional medicine--West Indies--History--18th century, Human experimentation in medicine--West Indies--History--18th century, Slaves--Health and hygiene--West Indies--History--18th century, and Tropical medicine--West Indies--History--18th century
In the natural course of events, humans fall sick and die. The history of medicine bristles with attempts to find new and miraculous remedies, to work with and against nature to restore humans to health and well-being. In this book, Londa Schiebinger examines medicine and human experimentation in the Atlantic World, exploring the circulation of people, disease, plants, and knowledge between Europe, Africa, and the Americas. She traces the development of a colonial medical complex from the 1760s, when a robust experimental culture emerged in the British and French West Indies, to the early 1800s, when debates raged about banning the slave trade and, eventually, slavery itself. Massive mortality among enslaved Africans and European planters, soldiers, and sailors fueled the search for new healing techniques. Amerindian, African, and European knowledges competed to cure diseases emerging from the collision of peoples on newly established, often poorly supplied, plantations. But not all knowledge was equal. Highlighting the violence and fear endemic to colonial struggles, Schiebinger explores aspects of African medicine that were not put to the test, such as Obeah and vodou. This book analyzes how and why specific knowledges were blocked, discredited, or held secret.
Literature and society--Great Britain--History--19th century, English literature--Philosophy, Romanticism--Great Britain, Politics and literature--Great Britain--History--18th century, Politics and literature--Great Britain--History--19th century, and Literature and society--Great Britain--History--18th century
What role should reason play in the creation of a free and just society? Can we claim to know anything in a field as complex as politics? And how can the cause of political rationalism be advanced when it is seen as having blood on its hands? These are the questions that occupied a group of British poets, philosophers, and polemicists in the years following the French Revolution.Timothy Michael argues that much literature of the period is a trial, or a critique, of reason in its political capacities and a test of the kinds of knowledge available to it. For Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Burke, Wollstonecraft, and Godwin, the historical sequence of revolution, counter-revolution, and terror in France—and radicalism and repression in Britain—occasioned a dramatic reassessment of how best to advance the project of enlightenment. The political thought of these figures must be understood, Michael contends, in the context of their philosophical thought. Major poems of the period, including The Prelude, The Excursion, and Prometheus Unbound, are in this reading an adjudication of competing political and epistemological claims. This book bridges for the first time two traditional pillars of Romantic studies: the period's politics and its theories of the mind and knowledge. Combining literary and intellectual history, it provides an account of British Romanticism in which high rhetoric, political prose, poetry, and poetics converge in a discourse of enlightenment and emancipation.
Radicalism in literature, Radicalism--Great Britain--History--18th century, Radicalism--Great Britain--History--17th century, Radicalism and the press--Great Britain--History--18th century, and Radicalism and the press--Great Britain--History--17th century
This collection of essays studies the expression and diffusion of radical ideas in Britain from the period of the English Revolution in the mid-seventeenth century to the Romantic Revolution in the early nineteenth century. The essays included in the volume explore the modes of articulation and dissemination of radical ideas in the period by focusing on actors ('radical voices') and a variety of written texts and cultural practices ('radical ways'), ranging from fiction, correspondence, pamphlets and newspapers to petitions presented to Parliament and toasts raised in public. They analyse the way these media interacted with their political, religious, social and literary context. This volume provides an interdisciplinary outlook on the study of early modern radicalism, with contributions from literary scholars and historians, and uses case studies as insights into the global picture of radical ideas. It will be of interest to students of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century literature and history.
Psychology and literature--History--18th century, English literature--18th century--History and criticism, Distraction (Psychology), Enlightenment--Great Britain, Interest (Psychology), and Cognition in literature
Early novel reading typically conjures images of rapt readers in quiet rooms, but commentators at the time described reading as a fraught activity, one occurring amidst a distracting cacophony that included sloshing chamber pots and wailing street vendors. Auditory distractions were compounded by literary ones as falling paper costs led to an explosion of print material, forcing prose fiction to compete with a dizzying array of essays, poems, sermons, and histories. In Distraction, Natalie M. Phillips argues that prominent Enlightenment authors—from Jane Austen and William Godwin to Eliza Haywood and Samuel Johnson—were deeply engaged with debates about the wandering mind, even if they were not equally concerned about the problem of distractibility.Phillips explains that some novelists in the 1700s—viewing distraction as a dangerous wandering from singular attention that could lead to sin or even madness—attempted to reform diverted readers. Johnson and Haywood, for example, worried that contemporary readers would only focus long enough to'look into the first pages'of essays and novels; Austen offered wry commentary on the issue through the creation of the daft Lydia Bennet, a character with an attention span so short she could listen only'half-a-minute.'Other authors radically redefined distraction as an excellent quality of mind, aligning the multiplicity of divided focus with the spontaneous creation of new thought. Laurence Sterne's Tristram Shandy, for example, won audiences with its comically distracted narrator and uniquely digressive form.Using cognitive science as a framework to explore the intertwined history of mental states, philosophy, science, and literary forms, Phillips explains how arguments about the diverted mind made their way into the century's most celebrated literature. She also draws a direct link between the disparate theories of focus articulated in eighteenth-century literature and modern experiments in neuroscience, revealing that contemporary questions surrounding short attention spans are grounded in long conversations over the nature and limits of focus.
Church and state--Ireland--History--18th century, Religion and politics--Ireland--History--18th century, and Enlightenment--Ireland
Scotland and England produced well-known intellectuals during the Enlightenment, but Ireland's contribution to this revolution in Western thought has received less attention. Michael Brown shows that Ireland also had its Enlightenment, which for a brief time opened up the possibility of a tolerant society, despite a history of sectarian conflict.
French literature--18th century--History and criticism, English literature--18th century--History and criticism, Philosophy in literature, Aesthetics in literature, Vitalism in literature, and Materialism in literature
Mind, Body, Motion, Matter investigates the relationship between the eighteenth century's two predominant approaches to the natural world – mechanistic materialism and vitalism – in the works of leading British and French writers such as Daniel Defoe, William Hogarth, Laurence Sterne, the third Earl of Shaftesbury and Denis Diderot. Focusing on embodied experience and the materialization of thought in poetry, novels, art, and religion, the literary scholars in this collection offer new and intriguing readings of these canonical authors. Informed by contemporary currents such as new materialism, cognitive studies, media theory, and post-secularism, their essays demonstrate the volatility of the core ideas opened up by materialism and the possibilities of an aesthetic vitalism of form.
History Today. May2018, Vol. 68 Issue 5, p64-77. 14p.
WOMEN painters -- History, 18TH century European painting, WOMEN, PATRON & client, EIGHTEENTH century, HISTORY, EUROPE, and SOCIAL conditions
The article explores the history of 18th-century art created by women painters in Europe. The author reflects on the training of women artists and the management of art studios. Emphasis is given to topics including royal patronage for artists such as Adélaïde Labille-Guiard and Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun, the marriage of artist Angelica Kauffman, and the social inequality experienced by women artists.
History Today. Mar2018, Vol. 68 Issue 3, p72-77. 6p.
WOMEN, HISTORY, VACCINATION, DISEASES in women, PUBLIC health, and FRANCE
The article focuses on Swiss physician Théodore Tronchin, a specialist in women's diseases and inoculation, who recommended fresh, exercise and looser corsets to prevent diseases in women in 18th-century Paris, France. Topics include Tronchin's focus on the doctor-patient relationship and advocacy for healthy lifestyle and physical well-being, the campaign of hatred against him following his success in inoculation, and criticism by Michel Philippe Bouvard and Antoine Angélique Chomel.