Azra Zafar, Rizwana Shahid, Saima Nazish, Danah Aljaafari, Fahd Ali Alkhamis, Sadiq Alsalman, Amir H. Msmar, Badaruddin Abbasi, Abdulla A. Alsulaiman, and Majed Alabdali
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice, Vol 10, Iss 01, Pp 106-112 (2019)
Antiepileptic drugs, epilepsy, nonadherence, Neurosciences. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry, and RC321-571
Context: Medication nonadherence is a significant barrier in achieving seizure freedom in patients with epilepsy. There is a deficiency of data about the reasons for nonadherence in Saudi population. Aims: The aim of this study is to prove the existence of nonadherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in patients with epilepsy and identify the responsible factors. Setting and Design: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study carried in the Department of Neurology at King Fahd Hospital of the University affiliated with Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University. Subjects and Methods: Patients of all ages diagnosed to have epilepsy as mentioned in their medical record and taking antiepileptic medications were interviewed using a questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Statistical significance was defined as two-tailed with a P ≤ 0.05. Results: Among 152 participants, 52.6% were male and 47.4% were female. Mean age of the patients was 28 ± 14.3 (mean ± standard deviation) years. Of 152 patients, 48.7% were found to be nonadherent to their AED therapy. The most commonly identified factor was forgetfulness. Nonadherence was significantly associated with poor seizure control (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Nonadherence to the AED is common among patients with epilepsy and affects seizure control adversely.
Al-Ozairi E, Rivard CJ, Sanchez-Lozada LG, Lanaspa MA, Bjornstad P, Salem DA, Alhubail A, Megahed A, Kuwabara M, Johnson RJ, and Asad RA
Journal Of Diabetes [J Diabetes] 2019 Aug 31. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Aug 31.
Background: Fructose is distinct among common sugars in its ability to raise serum uric acid, and some studies suggest fructose-induced uric acid production may have a role in the ability of this sugar to induce metabolic syndrome. A fructose tolerance test has been previously developed to evaluate the relative ability of fructose to raise uric acid in individuals. However, the effect of fructose to raise uric acid in people with diabetes has not been studied. Methods: People with type 2 diabetes (n = 143) and without diabetes controls (n = 132) with similar body mass index (BMI) underwent an oral fructose tolerance test. As a comparison, participants also had their uric acid levels measured after an oral glucose tolerance test on a different day. Results: Serum uric acid was lower in people with type 2 diabetes compared to controls with similar degree of BMI, especially those with poor glucose control (HbA1C ≥ 8%). Fructose administration raised serum uric acid in both groups, with a lower absolute rise in people with diabetes. People with diabetes with a blunted rise in serum uric acid had higher baseline serum uric acid concentrations and higher BMI. People without diabetes with a higher BMI also showed a blunted serum uric acid response. Oral glucose administration lowered serum uric acid in both participants, with a greater fall in those with diabetes. Conclusion: Both the presence of diabetes and obesity blunt the serum uric acid response to fructose ingestion. These data demonstrate altered fructose-dependent urate metabolism in type 2 diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.)
Objective: Our study aims to evaluate the etiologic and clinical features of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) in Saudi Arabia, and secondarily whether gender plays a role in CVST. Materials and Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from the stroke registry during the period from January 2008 to April 2018, and the patients with the diagnosis of CVST were identified, and data were analyzed for any gender-specific differences in clinical presentation and etiology of cerebral venous thrombosis. Results: There were 15 females while 11 males with a female:male ratio of 1.4:1. The mean age was 29.4± standard deviation 8.9 with the age range of 15–49. Headache was the most common and usually the first presenting symptoms present in 65% followed by hemiparesis and cranial nerve palsies. The first neurological examination was normal in 9/26 (34.6%) of the patients, while the common abnormality was cranial nerve palsies. Infections and trauma played an important part in risk factor analysis of our patient after the pregnancy- and hormone-related conditions. Some significant differences between the clinical presentation and risk factors among males and females were noted as age at presentation was higher in females while trauma and infections were common in male patients, although the involvement of the sinuses and response to treatment did not prove to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of this study were similar to the available literature with few differences. The relatively higher proportion of males in our study can be explained partly with more cases of traumatic CVST. Some important differences were noted between the risk factors and clinical presentation among genders. Large-scale prospective studies are needed to further clarify these differences.
In early 2021, the US Census Bureau will begin releasing statistical tables based on the decennial census conducted in 2020. Because of significant changes in the data landscape, the Census Bureau is changing its approach to disclosure avoidance. The confidentiality of individuals represented "anonymously" in these statistical tables will be protected by a "formal privacy" technique that allows the Bureau to mathematically assess the risk of revealing information about individuals in the released statistical tables. The Bureau's approach is an implementation of "differential privacy," and it gives a rigorously demonstrated guaranteed level of privacy protection that traditional methods of disclosure avoidance do not. Given the importance of the Census Bureau's statistical tables to democracy, resource allocation, justice, and research, confusion about what differential privacy is and how it might alter or eliminate data products has rippled through the community of its data users, namely: demographers, statisticians, and census advocates. The purpose of this primer is to provide context to the Census Bureau's decision to use a technique based on differential privacy and to help data users and other census advocates who are struggling to understand what this mathematical tool is, why it matters, and how it will affect the Bureau's data products.
Neurosciences (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) [Neurosciences (Riyadh)] 2019 Jul; Vol. 24 (3), pp. 192-198.
Objective: To describe the prevalence, knowledge and attitudes about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use and the proportion that seek advice from their physician about CAM use. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was performed in multiple sclerosis (MS) clinic of King Fahd Hospital of Universityin Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January-June 2017. A total of 133 patients have completed the survey. Results: The mean age of patients was 32.3+/-7.6 years and 84 (63.2%) were female. Approximately 83.5% of the patients reported the use of CAM. Among all the reported forms of CAM, vitamins were the most prevalent form, followed by cupping, special prayers and meditation. The majority of patients (62%) obtained knowledge of CAM through social media. A significant number of patients (75.6%) did not disclose the use of CAM to their physician. There was a trend for using CAM more in highly educated, older age, and female patients. The most commonly reported rationale to use CAM was overall improvement in health status. Conclusion: The use of CAM among Saudi patients with MS is highly prevalent, without disclosure of its use to physicians. These factors should be taken into account in the doctor-patient consultation to avoid adverse events.
Albadr, Thuraya, Alruhaimi, Danah, Cahusac, Peter, and Rohra, Dileep
Journal of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery. July-Dec, 2019, Vol. 23 Issue 2, 76
Isotretinoin -- Usage, Acne -- Care and treatment, Antiacne agents, and Women college students
Background: The most effective treatment for severe acne is isotretinoin. However, it carries major side effects, such as teratogenicity, depression, and increased lipid profiles. It is advised to monitor the [...]
Techniques that may be used for detecting a primary content (e.g., a web page) that the user is viewing and presenting one or more pieces of supplemental content (e.g., social media data) together with the primary content. The supplemental content presented to the user together with the primary content may be content that is matched to the primary content and therefore detected to be relevant to the user. Detection of primary content and matching to supplemental content may be carried out based on a comparison of entities related to the primary and supplemental content. In some embodiments, an analysis of the primary content for entities may include ordering entities according to significance in the primary content and selecting top entities for comparison. Also, in some embodiments, multiple pieces of supplemental content may be displayed to a user categorized based on entity.
Yunis R, Hollenkamp AF, Forsyth C, Doherty CM, Al-Masri D, and Pringle JM
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP [Phys Chem Chem Phys] 2019 Jun 21; Vol. 21 (23), pp. 12288-12300. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 May 29.
The synthesis and characterisation of new solid-state electrolytes is a key step in advancing the development of safer and more reliable electrochemical energy storage technologies. Organic ionic plastic crystals (OIPCs) are an increasingly promising class of material for application in devices such as lithium or sodium metal batteries as they can support high ionic conductivity, with good electrochemical and thermal stability. However, the choice of OIPC-forming ions is still relatively limited. Furthermore, understanding of the influence of different cations and anions on the thermal, structural and transport properties of these materials is still in its infancy. Here we report the synthesis and in-depth characterisation of a range of new OIPCs utilising the hexamethylguanidinium cation ([HMG]) with five different anions. The thermal, structural, transport properties and free volume in the different salts have been investigated. The free volume within the salts has been investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, and the single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis of [HMG] bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([TFSI]) in phase I and II, [HMG] hexafluorophosphate ([PF6]) and [HMG] tetrafluoroborate ([HMG][BF4]) are reported. The HMG cation can exhibit significant disorder, which is advantageous for plasticity and future use of these materials as high ionic conductivity matrices. The bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt, [HMG][FSI], is identified as particularly promising for use as an electrolyte, with good electrochemical stability and soft mechanical properties. The findings introduce a range of new materials to the solid-state electrolyte arena, while the insights into the physico-chemical relationships in these materials will be of importance for the future development and understanding of other ionic electrolytes.
Sayadi LR, Alhunayan D, Sarantopoulos N, Kong C, Condamoor S, Sayadi J, Banyard DA, Shaterian A, Leis A, Evans GRD, and Widgerow AD
Annals Of Plastic Surgery [Ann Plast Surg] 2019 Jun 20. Date of Electronic Publication: 2019 Jun 20.
Background: Ever since the classification of Dupuytren disease into the proliferative, involutional, and residual stages, extensive research has been performed to uncover the molecular underpinnings of the disease and develop better treatment modalities for patients. The aim of this article is to systematically review the basic science literature pertaining to Dupuytren disease and suggest a new approach to treatment. Methods: Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, a systematic review was conducted using the MEDLINE database to identify basic science literature on Dupuytren pathophysiology falling under 1 or more of the following categories: (1) Molecular alterations, (2) Structural alterations, and (3) Genetic predisposition. Results: A total of 177 articles were reviewed of which 77 studies met inclusion criteria. Articles were categorized into respective sections outlined in the study methods. Conclusion: The pathophysiological changes involved in Dupuytren's disease can be divided into a number of molecular and structural alterations with genetic predisposition playing a contributory role. Understanding these changes can allow for the development of biologics which may disrupt and halt the disease process.
Canadian Journal Of Physiology And Pharmacology [Can J Physiol Pharmacol] 2019 Jun; Vol. 97 (6), pp. 493-497. Date of Electronic Publication: 2018 Nov 23.
Fibroblasts have long been recognized as important stromal cells, playing key roles in synthesizing and maintaining the extracellular matrix, but historically were treated as a relatively uniform cell type. Studies in recent years have revealed a surprising level of heterogeneity of fibroblasts across tissues, and even within organs such as the skin and heart. This heterogeneity may have functional consequences, including during stress and disease. While the field has moved forward quickly to begin to address the scientific import of this heterogeneity, the descriptive language used for these cells has not kept pace, particularly when considering the phenotype changes that occur as fibroblasts convert to myofibroblasts in response to injury. We discuss here the nature and sources of the heterogeneity of fibroblasts, and review how our understanding of the complexity of the fibroblast to myofibroblast phenotype conversion has changed with increasing scrutiny. We propose that the time is opportune to reevaluate how we name and describe these cells, particularly as they transition to myofibroblasts through discrete stages. A standardized nomenclature is essential to address the confusion that currently exists in the literature as to the usage of terms like myofibroblast and the description of fibroblast phenotype changes in disease.
TIDES, PHARMACEUTICAL policy, CHEMICAL structure, and HARVESTING
In 2018, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a total of 59 new drugs, three of them (5%) are TIDES (or also, -tides), two oligonucleotides and one peptide. Herein, the three TIDES approved are analyzed in terms of medical target, mode of action, chemical structure, and economics. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Social Research. Summer2019, Vol. 86 Issue 2, p449-476. 28p.
PROFESSIONAL ethics, ARTIFICIAL intelligence, LOGIC, CORPORATE power, ORGANIZATIONAL power, and EVERYDAY life
The article illustrates what it looks like to own ethics in the technology industry today. Topics include given the increasing power and centrality of artificial intelligence (AI) and automated decision making tools in everyday life, there is an urgent need for a coherent approach to addressing ethics, values, and moral consequences, and ethics owners operate inside a fraught dynamic: on the one hand attempting to resolve critical external normative claims about the core logics of the tech industry; on the other hand doing so while fully embedded within those logics, and attempts to institutionalize ethics within entities structured by core logics of corporate power point towards a series of structural, conceptual, and procedural pitfalls that may ultimately stymie these efforts.
This study presents a numerical procedure, which we call the macroscopic forcing method (MFM), which reveals the differential operators acting upon the mean fields of quantities transported by underlying fluctuating flows. Specifically, MFM can precisely determine the eddy diffusivity operator, or more broadly said, it can reveal differential operators associated with turbulence closure for scalar and momentum transport. We present this methodology by considering canonical problems with increasing complexity. As an example demonstrating the usefulness of the developed methodology, we show that an eddy diffusivity operator, i.e. model form, obtained from an MFM analysis of homogeneous isotropic turbulence leads to significant improvement in RANS prediction of axisymmetric turbulent jets. We show a cost-effective generalization of MFM for analysis of non-homogeneous and wall-bounded flows, where the eddy diffusivity is found to be a convolution acting on the macroscopic gradient of transported quantities. We introduce MFM as an effective tool for quantitative understanding of non-Boussinesq effects and assessment of model forms in turbulence closures, particularly, the effects associated with anisotropy and non-locality of macroscopic mixing. Comment: 50 pages, 10 figures