Mohamed S.H. Hassan, Ahmed Ali, Motamed Elsayed Mahmoud, Danah Altakrouni, Shahnas M. Najimudeen, and Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Virus Research, Vol 339, Iss , Pp 199281- (2024)
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), DMV/1639, Autogenous vaccine, Layer, Canada, Microbiology, QR1-502, Infectious and parasitic diseases, and RC109-216
The emergence of the Canadian Delmarva (DMV)/1639 infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) type strains was associated with egg production disorders in Eastern Canadian layer operations. While developing vaccines for novel IBV variants is not typically a reasonable approach, the consideration of an autogenous vaccine becomes more appealing, particularly when the new variant presents significant economic challenges. The current study aimed to compare the efficacies of two vaccination programs that included heterologous live priming by Massachusetts (Mass) and Connecticut (Conn) type vaccines followed by either a commercial inactivated Mass type vaccine or a locally prepared autogenous inactivated DMV/1639 type vaccine against DMV/1639 IBV challenge. The protection parameters evaluated were egg production, viral shedding, dissemination of the virus in tissues, gross and microscopic lesions, and immunological responses. The challenge with the DMV/1639 caused severe consequences in the non-vaccinated laying hens including significant drop in egg production, production of low-quality eggs, serious damage to the reproductive organs, and yolk peritonitis. The two vaccination programs protected the layers from the poor egg-laying performance and the pathology. The vaccination program incorporating the autogenous inactivated DMV/1639 type vaccine was more effective in reducing vial loads in renal and reproductive tissues. This was associated with a higher virus neutralization titer compared to the group that received the commercial inactivated Mass type vaccine. Additionally, the autogenous vaccine boost led to a significant reduction in the viral shedding compared to the non-vaccinated laying hens. However, both vaccination programs induced significant level of protection considering all parameters examined. Overall, the findings from this study underscore the significance of IBV vaccination for protecting laying hens.
Dalia A. Gaber, Mahasen A. Radwan, Danah A. Alzughaibi, Jenan A. Alail, Rafa S. Aljumah, Reema M. Aloqla, Sara A. Alkhalifah, and Siham A. Abdoun
Drug Delivery, Vol 30, Iss 1 (2023)
Nanosponges, crosslinker, nanocarrier, cyclodextrin, analgesics, drug efficacy, Therapeutics. Pharmacology, and RM1-950
AbstractCyclodextrin nanosponges are solid nanoparticles, designed by cross-linking of cyclodextrin polymer; it has been used widely as a good delivery system for water insoluble drugs. The aim of this study is to enhance the solubility of Piroxicam (PXM) using β-Cyclodextrin based nanosponges formulations. PXM nanosponge (PXM-NS) formulations were prepared using β-cyclodextrin and carbonyldiimidazole as a cross linker, three ratios of β-cyclodextrin to crosslinker in addition to three drug to nanosponges ratios were tested. Piroxicam nanosponge formulations were characterized for its particle size, zeta potential, physical compatibility and in vitro release. Stability studies at three temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C) were done for optimal formula. Finally, the in vivo analgesic activity and pharmacokinetic parameters of the optimal formula were conducted. The optimized PXM-NS formula (PXM-NS10) showed particle size (362 ± 14.06 nm), polydispersity index (0.0518), zeta potential (17 ± 1.05 mV), and %EE (79.13 ± 4.33). The dissolution study showed a significant increase in the amount of PXM dissolved compared with the unformulated drug. Stability studies confirmed that nanosponge showed accepted stability for 90 days at 4 °C and 25 °C. In vivo analgesic studies verified that there was a significant enhancement in the analgesic response to PXM in mice, and 1.42 fold enhancement in the relative bioavailability of PXM-NS10 as compared to commercial tablets. Nanosponge prepared under optimal conditions is an encouraging formula for increasing the solubility and therefore the bioavailability of Piroxicam.
In the present specification, a composition for improving skin transparency and a composition for reducing skin dullness are disclosed. The composition contains a mixed extract of Rosa multiflorae Fructus, black sesame, plum, quince, and pine nut as an active ingredient, wherein the Rosa multiflorae Fructus and black sesame may be germinated. Also, the composition has the effect of improving skin that has become dull due to the effects of aging, the external environment, stress, etc., so that the skin is made clear and transparent.