• Acute and repeated opioid administration to animals affects the cerebellum. • Opioid-related cues and opioids themselves modify cerebellar activity. • The relevance of these changes for opioid addiction is discussed. • Experiments are proposed to clarify the cerebellar role in opioid addiction. Opioid addiction has reached the epidemic status in the United States in recent years. A multitude of factors have contributed to an alarming increase in misuse and health issues related to these drugs. Although medications exist to treat some aspects of opioid addiction since long ago, relapse and fatality rates remain very high despite their long-term availability. Therefore, more research devoted to better understanding its neural substrates is needed to aid developing new treatment options. Interestingly, a number of studies show the cerebellum to be involved in the effects of opioids and addiction-related processes, though it is not usually regarded as part of the opioid addiction-related brain circuitry. This review provides a summary of cerebellar anatomy and synaptic organization, followed by discussing the studies reporting cerebellar involvement in opioid effects in animals and humans, and their possible role in opioid addiction. Additionally, future experimental approaches will be proposed. We hope this work will contribute considering the cerebellum as an integral part of the circuitry underlying opioid-related disorders. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
CEREBELLUM, NEURAL circuitry, CANNABIS, ADDICTIONS, and CANNABINOID receptors
Cannabis is the third most used psychoactive drug worldwide. Despite being legally scheduled as a drug with high harm potential and no therapeutic utility in countries like the USA, evidence shows otherwise and legislative changes and reinterpretations of existing ambiguous laws make this drug increasingly available by legal means. Nevertheless, this substance is able to generate clear addiction syndromes in some individuals who use it, which are accompanied by brain alterations resembling those caused by other addictive drugs. Moreover, there is no available pharmacological treatment for this disorder. This fact motivates a deep study and comprehension of the neural basis of addiction-relevant cannabinoid effects. Interestingly, the cerebellum, a hindbrain structure which involvement in functions not related to motor control and planning is being increasingly recognized in the last decades, seems to be involved in the effects of addictive drugs and addiction-related processes and also presents a high density of cannabinoid receptors. Preclinical research on the involvement of the cerebellum in cannabis' effects has focused in the drug's motor incoordinating actions, potentially underestimating its participation in addiction. Therefore, this review addresses the studies reporting cerebellar involvement in cannabis effects both in experimental animals and human subjects and the possible relevance of these changes for addiction. Additionally, future experimental approaches will be proposed and hopefully this work will stimulate research on the cerebellum in cannabis addiction and help recognizing it as an important part of the neural circuitry affected in cannabis-related disorders. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
WORD processing, ADULTS, VOCABULARY, CEREBELLUM, and BILINGUALISM
Reading relies on a left-lateralized brain system, including occipito-temporal (OTC), temporo-parietal, and inferior frontal (IFC) cortices. Neuroimaging studies have investigated whether activation in these cortices is modulated by a language's orthographic depth (consistency of grapheme-to-phoneme conversion). In Spanish-English bilinguals, some but not all studies have reported activation differences between the two languages during reading. Here, we studied Spanish-English early bilingual adults living in the United States (N = 25; 17 females, 8 males). We examined local activity, functional connectivity, and spatially distributed activity patterns during English and Spanish word reading. We found overlap in local activity for the two languages in the left IFC, but no differences in activation between them and few differences in functional connectivity (none of which were in pairs of regions known to be involved in reading); yet, there were spatially distributed patterns of brain activity that differentiate English and Spanish in regions of bilateral cerebellum/left OTC, the left superior occipital gyrus, the left IFC, and the left medial frontal gyrus. Overall, we found no evidence for differences in local activation or functional connectivity during English versus Spanish word processing in regions known to be involved in reading, yet we found brain-based evidence that Spanish-English bilinguals distinguish between the two languages. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
GLUCOCORTICOIDS -- Therapeutic use, THERAPEUTIC use of immunoglobulins, THERAPEUTIC use of interferons, MULTIPLE sclerosis diagnosis, MULTIPLE sclerosis treatment, NATALIZUMAB, BACK injuries, BEHAVIOR modification, CEREBELLUM, CEREBRAL cortex, COGNITIVE therapy, DEMYELINATION, ACCIDENTAL falls, HEALTH behavior, MAGNETIC resonance imaging, MULTIPLE sclerosis, OCCUPATIONAL therapy, PHYSICAL therapy, PLASMA exchange (Therapeutics), SMOKING, VITAMIN D, BRUISES, and THERAPEUTICS
An employee is labeled “accident-prone,” and sustained an acute lumbar injury at work. Upon physical examination, a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis was suspected. She was referred to a public health clinic for further evaluation. This is a review article of multiple sclerosis and workplace interventions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology. Feb2014, Vol. 70 Issue 2, p83-86. 4p.
ASTROCYTOMAS, CYSTS (Pathology), CEREBELLAR tumors, and NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1
Pilocytic astrocytoma usually has a classic imaging manifestation of a solitary, cystlike mass with a strong contrast-enhancing mural nodule. There is only one published report so far of multiple solid and cyst type pilocytic astrocytomas in the cerebellum in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patient from the United States in 2007. We report a case of pilocytic astrocytoma presenting with only solid, multiple pilocytic astrocytomas ¡n the cerebellum in NF1 patient. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
CEREBELLAR ataxia, SPINOCEREBELLAR ataxia, CLEFT lip, CLEFT palate, HUMAN abnormalities, and CEREBELLUM diseases
Isolated cleft lip and/or palate (ICLP) is one of the most common congenital birth defects in the USA, affecting roughly 1 in 600 births annually. Along with the facial deformity, this population has been found to have abnormal neurodevelopment and gross structural abnormalities in the brain, particularly within the cerebellum. The current study examined cerebellar structure within the two primary subtypes of ICLP: cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate alone (CPO). A large sample of 107 subjects aged 7 to 27 years with ICLP was compared to 127 healthy controls. Samples were separated by sex. Brain structure was obtained via magnetic resonance imaging. For males, after controlling for intracranial volume, cerebellum volume was significantly lower in the ICLP group ( F = 12.351, p = 0.001). Regionally in the cerebellum, males with ICLP had proportionally larger anterior lobes ( F = 4.022, p = 0.047) and smaller superior posterior lobes ( F = 5.686, p = 0.019). CL/P males showed only a reduction in overall cerebellum volume, with no regional changes. CPO males showed only regional changes, with no reduction in overall volume. Females with ICLP showed no overall or regional cerebellar abnormalities. However, females with CPO did have significantly lower cerebellum volumes than controls. The results reveal both global and regional cerebellar abnormalities within subjects with ICLP. They also establish the existence of abnormal cerebellar morphologies that are dependent on cleft subtype as well as sex. This lends further support to the claim that CL/P and CPO are distinct conditions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Gagne, Remi, Green, James R, Dong, Hongyan, Wade, Mike G, and Yauk, Carole L
BMC Genomics. May 23, 2013, Vol. 14 Issue 1
Instrument industry, Animal experimentation, Chromatin, Cerebellum, DNA microarrays, Hormone receptors, and Promoters (Genetics)
Background Thyroid hormones play an essential role in early vertebrate development as well as other key processes. One of its modes of action is to bind to the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) which, in turn, binds to thyroid response elements (TREs) in promoter regions of target genes. The sequence motif for TREs remains largely undefined as does the precise chromosomal location of the TR binding sites. A chromatin immunoprecipitation on microarray (ChIP-chip) experiment was conducted using mouse cerebellum post natal day (PND) 4 and PND15 for the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta 1 to map its binding sites on over 5000 gene promoter regions. We have performed a detailed computational analysis of these data. Results By analysing a recent spike-in study, the optimal normalization and peak identification approaches were determined for our dataset. Application of these techniques led to the identification of 211 ChIP-chip peaks enriched for TR binding in cerebellum samples. ChIP-PCR validation of 25 peaks led to the identification of 16 true positive TREs. Following a detailed literature review to identify all known mouse TREs, a position weight matrix (PWM) was created representing the classic TRE sequence motif. Various classes of promoter regions were investigated for the presence of this PWM, including permuted sequences, randomly selected promoter sequences, and genes known to be regulated by TH. We found that while the occurrence of the TRE motif is strongly correlated with gene regulation by TH for some genes, other TH-regulated genes do not exhibit an increased density of TRE half-site motifs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an increase in the rate of occurrence of the half-site motifs does not always indicate the specific location of the TRE within the promoter region. To account for the fact that TR often operates as a dimer, we introduce a novel dual-threshold PWM scanning approach for identifying TREs with a true positive rate of 0.73 and a false positive rate of 0.2. Application of this approach to ChIP-chip peak regions revealed the presence of 85 putative TREs suitable for further in vitro validation. Conclusions This study further elucidates TR[beta] gene regulation in mouse cerebellum, with 211 promoter regions identified to bind to TR. While we have identified 85 putative TREs within these regions, future work will study other mechanisms of action that may mediate the remaining observed TR-binding activity.
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience; May2013, Vol. 7, p1-6, 6p
AUTISTIC people, SOCIAL interaction, SENSORY evaluation, and CEREBELLUM
The article presents a study that investigates the movement and sensory differences of autistic individuals in the U.S. It mentions the factors involved in the social communication and social interaction of autistic people. Moreover, it states the roles of basal ganglia, sensorimotor cortex and cerebellum in motor control.