CARDIOVASCULAR diseases risk factors, BLOOD pressure, POSTMENOPAUSE, INFLAMMATION, METABOLIC syndrome, LIPID metabolism, and DISEASES in women
Objective Soy has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease in Asian countries which consume daily soy. Our study examined whether production of equol, an estrogen metabolite, affected the ability of soy nuts to improve cardiovascular risk factors. Materials/Methods Sixty postmenopausal women participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover trial of a Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) diet alone and a TLC diet in which 0.5 cup of soy nuts (25 g of soy protein and 101 mg of aglycone isoflavones) replaced 25 g of nonsoy protein daily. Each diet was followed for 8 weeks at the end of which blood pressure (BP), lipid levels, adhesion molecules and inflammatory markers were measured. Results Women with MetS had significantly higher baseline body mass index (BMI), BP, triglycerides (TG), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) than women without MetS. In women with MetS on the soy diet, significant reductions in diastolic BP (7.7%; P = 0.02), TG (22.9%; P = 0.02), C-reactive protein (CRP) (21.4%; P = 0.01) and sICAM (7.3%; P = 0.03) were noted among equol producers compared to levels on the TLC diet. No significant changes were noted in equol nonproducers. Similarly, in women without MetS, only equol producers had significant reductions in diastolic BP (3.3%, P = 0.02) and CRP (30%, P = 0.04). In contrast to women with MetS, TG and sICAM levels were not affected in women without MetS, a finding possibly related to lower baseline levels. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk reduction with soy nuts is not uniform and may be greater among producers of equol. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Article, Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine, Type 2 diabetes, medicine.disease, medicine, Endocrinology, medicine.medical_specialty, business.industry, business, Triglyceride, chemistry.chemical_compound, chemistry, Reverse cholesterol transport, Inflammation, medicine.symptom, Cholesterol, Internal medicine, Insulin resistance, Fatty streak, Metabolic syndrome, and lipids (amino acids, peptides, and proteins)
This review article summarizes recent research into the mechanisms as to how elevated levels of triglyceride (TG) and low levels of high- density- lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) contribute to inflammation and atherosclerosis. Evidence supports the role of TG-rich lipoproteins in signaling mechanisms via apolipoproteins C-III and free fatty acids leading to activation of NFKβ, VCAM-1 and other inflammatory mediators which lead to fatty streak formation and advanced atherosclerosis. Moreover, the cholesterol content in TG-rich lipoproteins has been shown to predict CAD risk better than LDL-C. In addition to reverse cholesterol transport, HDL has many other cardioprotective effects which include regulating immune function. The “functionality” of HDL appears more important than the level of HDL-C. Insulin resistance and central obesity underlie the pathophysiology of elevated TG and low HDL-C in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle recommendations including exercise and weight loss remain first line therapy in ameliorating insulin resistance and the adverse signaling processes from elevated levels of TG-rich lipoproteins and low HDL-C.
The metabolism of apolipoproteins (apo)B-48, B-100, and A-I was studied with a primed constant infusion of deuterium-labeled leucine in the fed state in 3 male individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 28 to 57 mL/min/1.73 m2, obesity (body mass index [BMI] 33.1), and the metabolic syndrome. Compared to 5 obese controls (BMI 30.1) and 13 non-obese controls (BMI 25.2), these CKD subjects had high plasma levels of triglycerides (TG) (343 +/- 27.5 mg/dL v 144 +/- 34.4 in the obese controls, P < .001) and low apoA-I (86.7 +/- 3.9 mg/dL). An abnormal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle subpopulation pattern was found, with low levels of pre beta-1 and alpha1. Compared to the obese controls, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) apoB-100 levels were elevated 2- to 3-fold, while LDL apoB-100 levels were slightly lower (-7 %) and apoB-48 levels were comparable. The high TG levels were not associated with statistically significant changes in VLDL apoB-100 kinetics, although the production rate (PR) was higher and the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) was lower. The slightly lower LDL apoB-100 levels were accompanied by a significant 3-fold increase in the FCR and a 2.7-fold increase in the PR. The lower apoA-I levels were accompanied by a 1.6-fold increase in the FCR. Compared to the non-obese controls, the PR of apoA-I was increased by 61% and 38%, respectively (P < .001) in CKD and in obese control subjects. In the control subjects, the PR of apoA-I was significantly correlated with the BMI (r = 0.81, P < .0001). The kinetic results are consistent with these hypotheses: (1) CKD is associated with decreased clearance of the TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and increased catabolism of LDL; (2) obesity increases apoB-100 and apoA-I production; and (3) in CKD, TG transfer to HDL, making HDL more susceptible to catabolism, accounts for the low apoA-I levels.