The metabolism of apolipoproteins (apo)B-48, B-100, and A-I was studied with a primed constant infusion of deuterium-labeled leucine in the fed state in 3 male individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 28 to 57 mL/min/1.73 m2, obesity (body mass index [BMI] 33.1), and the metabolic syndrome. Compared to 5 obese controls (BMI 30.1) and 13 non-obese controls (BMI 25.2), these CKD subjects had high plasma levels of triglycerides (TG) (343 +/- 27.5 mg/dL v 144 +/- 34.4 in the obese controls, P < .001) and low apoA-I (86.7 +/- 3.9 mg/dL). An abnormal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle subpopulation pattern was found, with low levels of pre beta-1 and alpha1. Compared to the obese controls, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) apoB-100 levels were elevated 2- to 3-fold, while LDL apoB-100 levels were slightly lower (-7 %) and apoB-48 levels were comparable. The high TG levels were not associated with statistically significant changes in VLDL apoB-100 kinetics, although the production rate (PR) was higher and the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) was lower. The slightly lower LDL apoB-100 levels were accompanied by a significant 3-fold increase in the FCR and a 2.7-fold increase in the PR. The lower apoA-I levels were accompanied by a 1.6-fold increase in the FCR. Compared to the non-obese controls, the PR of apoA-I was increased by 61% and 38%, respectively (P < .001) in CKD and in obese control subjects. In the control subjects, the PR of apoA-I was significantly correlated with the BMI (r = 0.81, P < .0001). The kinetic results are consistent with these hypotheses: (1) CKD is associated with decreased clearance of the TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and increased catabolism of LDL; (2) obesity increases apoB-100 and apoA-I production; and (3) in CKD, TG transfer to HDL, making HDL more susceptible to catabolism, accounts for the low apoA-I levels.
Article, Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine, Type 2 diabetes, medicine.disease, medicine, Endocrinology, medicine.medical_specialty, business.industry, business, Triglyceride, chemistry.chemical_compound, chemistry, Reverse cholesterol transport, Inflammation, medicine.symptom, Cholesterol, Internal medicine, Insulin resistance, Fatty streak, Metabolic syndrome, and lipids (amino acids, peptides, and proteins)
This review article summarizes recent research into the mechanisms as to how elevated levels of triglyceride (TG) and low levels of high- density- lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) contribute to inflammation and atherosclerosis. Evidence supports the role of TG-rich lipoproteins in signaling mechanisms via apolipoproteins C-III and free fatty acids leading to activation of NFKβ, VCAM-1 and other inflammatory mediators which lead to fatty streak formation and advanced atherosclerosis. Moreover, the cholesterol content in TG-rich lipoproteins has been shown to predict CAD risk better than LDL-C. In addition to reverse cholesterol transport, HDL has many other cardioprotective effects which include regulating immune function. The “functionality” of HDL appears more important than the level of HDL-C. Insulin resistance and central obesity underlie the pathophysiology of elevated TG and low HDL-C in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle recommendations including exercise and weight loss remain first line therapy in ameliorating insulin resistance and the adverse signaling processes from elevated levels of TG-rich lipoproteins and low HDL-C.