The effects of Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (TLC) diets, low and high in dietary fish, on apolipoprotein metabolism were examined. Subjects were provided with a Western diet for 6 weeks, followed by 24 weeks of either of two TLC diets (10/group). Apolipoprotein kinetics were determined in the fed state using stable isotope methods and compartmental modeling at the end of each phase. Only the high-fish diet decreased median triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) apoB-100 concentration (-23%), production rate (PR, -9%), and direct catabolism (-53%), and increased TRL-to-LDL apoB-100 conversion (+39%) as compared with the baseline diet (all P < 0.05). This diet also decreased TRL apoB-48 concentration (-24%), fractional catabolic rate (FCR, -20%), and PR (-50%) as compared with the baseline diet (all P < 0.05). The high-fish and low-fish diets decreased LDL apoB-100 concentration (-9%, -23%), increased LDL apoB-100 FCR (+44%, +48%), and decreased HDL apoA-I concentration (-15%, -14%) and PR (-11%, -12%) as compared with the baseline diet (all P < 0.05). On the high-fish diet, changes in TRL apoB-100 PR were negatively correlated with changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. In conclusion, the high-fish diet decreased TRL apoB-100 and TRL apoB-48 concentrations chiefly by decreasing their PR. Both diets decreased LDL apoB-100 concentration by increasing LDL apoB-100 FCR and decreased HDL apoA-I concentration by decreasing HDL apoA-I PR.
Objective: To determine mechanisms contributing to the altered lipoprotein profile associated with aging and menopause, apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) and apoA-I kinetic behavior was assessed. Methods and Results: Eight premenopausal (25+/-3 years) and 16 postmenopausal (65+/-6 years) women consumed for 6 weeks a standardized Western diet, at the end of which a primed-constant infusion of deuterated leucine was administered in the fed state to determine the kinetic behavior of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apoB-100, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) apoA-I. Data were fit to a multicompartmental model using SAAM II to calculate fractional catabolic rate (FCR) and production rate (PR). Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), TRL-C, and triglyceride levels were higher (50%, 55%, 130%, and 232%, respectively) in the postmenopausal compared with the premenopausal women, whereas HDL-C levels were similar. Plasma TRL, IDL, and LDL-apoB-100 levels and pool sizes (PS) were significantly higher in the postmenopausal than premenopausal women. These differences were accounted for by lower TRL, IDL, and LDL apoB-100 FCR (P<0.05), with no difference in PR. There was no significant difference between groups in HDL-C levels or apoA-I kinetic parameters. Plasma TRL-C concentrations were negatively correlated with TRL apoB-100 FCR (r=-0.46; P<0.05) and positively correlated with PR (r=0.62; P<0.01). Plasma LDL-C concentrations were negatively correlated with LDL apoB-100 FCR (r=-0.70; P<0.001) but not PR. Conclusions: The mechanism for the increase in TRL and LDL apoB-100 PS observed in the postmenopausal women was determined predominantly by decreased TRL and LDL catabolism rather than increased production. No differences were observed in HDL apoA-I kinetics between groups.
Tilly-Kiesi M, Schaefer EJ, Knudsen P, Welty FK, Dolnikowski GG, Taskinen MR, and Lichtenstein AH
Metabolism: clinical and experimental [Metabolism] 2004 Apr; Vol. 53 (4), pp. 520-5.
Adult, Apolipoprotein A-I blood, Apolipoprotein A-II blood, Apolipoprotein B-100, Apolipoproteins B blood, Apolipoproteins B pharmacokinetics, Body Mass Index, Cholesterol blood, Heterozygote, Humans, Lipoproteins blood, Lipoproteins pharmacokinetics, Male, Middle Aged, Mutation, Particle Size, Triglycerides blood, Lipase deficiency, Lipoproteins metabolism, and Liver enzymology
A heritable deficiency of hepatic lipase (HL) provides insights into the physiologic function of HL in vivo. The metabolism of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-100 in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and of apoA-I and apoA-II in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles lipoprotein (Lp)(AI) and Lp(AI:AII) was assessed in 2 heterozygous males for compound mutations L334F/T383M or L334F/R186H, with 18% and 22% of HL activity, respectively, compared with 6 control males. Subjects were provided with a standard Western diet for a minimum of 3 weeks. At the end of the diet period, apo kinetics was assessed using a primed-constant infusion of [5,5,5-(2)H(3)] leucine. Mean plasma triglyceride (TG) and HDL cholesterol levels were 55% and 12% higher and LDL cholesterol levels 19% lower in the HL patients than control subjects. A higher proportion of apoB-100 was in the VLDL than IDL and LDL fractions of HL patients than control subjects due to a lower VLDL apoB-100 fractional catabolic rate (FCR) (4.63 v 9.38 pools/d, respectively) and higher hepatic production rate (PR) (33.24 v 10.87 mg/kg/d). Delayed FCR of IDL (2.78 and 6.31 pools/d) and LDL (0.128 and 0.205 pools/d) and lower PR of IDL (3.67 and 6.68 mg/kd/d) and LDL 4.57 and 13.07 mg/kg/d) was observed in HL patients relative to control subjects, respectively. ApoA-I FCR (0.09 and 0.13 pools/d) and PR (4.01 and 6.50 mg/kg/d) were slower in Lp(AI:AII) particles of HL patients relative to control subjects, respectively, accounting for the somewhat higher HDL cholesterol levels. HL deficiency may result in a lipoprotein pattern associated with low heart disease risk.
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an apolipoprotein(a) molecule bound to 1 apolipoprotein B-100. Elevated levels of Lp(a) are thought to be an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and to promote thrombosis through incompletely understood mechanisms. We report a 34-year-old man with an ischemic stroke in the setting of an extremely high Lp(a) level—212 mg/dL. He developed severe carotid artery stenosis over a 6-year period and had thrombus formation post-carotid endarterectomy. To our knowledge, this case is unique because the Lp(a) is the highest reported level in a patient without renal disease. Moreover, this is the first reported case of the youngest individual with a stroke presumably related to development of carotid plaque over a 6-year period. The thrombotic complication after endarterectomy may have been related to the prothrombotic properties of Lp(a). Of note, the Lp(a) level did not respond to atorvastatin but did decrease 15% after aspirin 325 mg was added although his Lp(a) levels were variable, and it is not clear that this was cause and effect. This case highlights the need to better understand the relation between Lp(a) and vascular disease and the need to screen family members for elevated Lp(a). We also review treatment options to lower Lp(a) and ongoing clinical trials of newer lipid-lowering drugs that can also lower Lp(a). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]