Infectious Diseases, Microbiology (medical), General Medicine, Enterovirus, medicine.disease_cause, medicine, business.industry, business, Internal medicine, medicine.medical_specialty, Medical microbiology, Meningitis, medicine.disease, Retrospective cohort study, Antibiotic therapy, Pleocytosis, Cerebrospinal fluid, and Enterovirus meningitis
To estimate the impact of implementing in-hospital enterovirus (EV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with same-day turn-around-time (TAT) on length-of-stay (LOS), antibiotic use and on cost per patient with suspected EV meningitis, compared with testing at an outside reference laboratory. A model-based analysis using a retrospective cohort of all hospitalized children with CSF EV PCR testing done between November 2013 and 2017. The primary outcome measured was the potential date of discharge if the EV PCR result had been available on the same day. Patients with positive EV PCR were considered for potential earlier discharge once clinically stable with no reason for hospitalization other than intravenous antibiotics. Descriptive statistics and cost-sensitivity analyses were performed. CSF EV PCR testing was done on 153 patients, of which 44 (29%) had a positive result. Median test TAT was 5.3 days (IQR 3.9-7.6). Median hospital LOS was 5 days (IQR 3-12). Most (86%) patients received intravenous antibiotics with mean duration of 5.72 ± 6.51 days. No patients with positive EV PCR had a serious bacterial infection. We found that same-day test TAT would reduce LOS and duration of intravenous antibiotics by 0.50 days (95%CI 0.33-0.68) and 0.67 days (95%CI 0.42-0.91), respectively. Same-day test TAT was associated with a cost reduction of 342.83CAD (95%CI 178.14-517.00) per patient with suspected EV meningitis. Compared with sending specimens to a reference laboratory, performing CSF EV PCR in-hospital with same-day TAT was associated with decreased LOS, antibiotic therapy, and cost per patient.