The 3O2 generated by the photolysis process will accept enough energy from triplet-chlorophyll to provide the energy states of a singlet of oxygen (1O2), 1Δg, and 1Σg+, with emissions in the range of 200 – 500 µm. The 1O2 would react with unsaturated fatty acids to form malondialdehyde (MDA). In humans, the methylation of CpG islands in cancerous cells is so high that the sensing ability of the occurrence of environmental changes to genes with CpG islands could be insufficient for genes with CpG islands. House-keeping genes function independently by sensing various types of information from neighboring cells, and supporting the proliferation of cells behaving as cancerous cells so that the cells achieve a malignant, metastatic state. The CpG island-controlled genes (47,000/human haploid genome) and CpG island-independent genes (33,000/human haploid genome) co-regulate in the normal cell systems. FAD, FMN, riboflavin, and derivatives of heme groups are well known as photosensitizers, which emit 1O2 with ROS in the solution in vivo. In sunlight, photosensitizers will function as the generators of 1O2 and ROS. During the daytime, there is a plentiful supply of 1O2 and ROS from the sunlight, and which inevitably constitutes the circadian rhythms of ROS. The repeated evolution of 1O2 and ROS would function to stimulate the methylation of CpG islands. The tubulin structures, extending from the plasma membrane to two centrosomes and located along the sides of the nucleus, are designated as asters. In darkness, the protein complex of NDPK-1/catalase is located in the plasma membrane. However, upon receiving light illumination, the NDPK-1/catalase function captures 1O2 using catalase. The NDPK-1 binds NADH and supplies electrons to bind 1O2 that is bound to the catalase, resulting in the release of a super oxide (O2.-). The NDPK/catalase protein complex located in the plasma membrane moves along the aster-forming tubulin structure to the cytosol. As a result, the nucleus is protected from 1O2 by the wall, which is composed of the NDPK-1/catalase complex.
Lu, XinPei, Reuter, Stephan, Laroussi, M., and Liu, Dawei
Plasma jets and Cancer--Treatment--Research
Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets (N-APPJs) generate plasma in open space rather than in a confined chamber and can be utilized for applications in medicine. This book provides a complete introduction to this fast-emerging field, from the fundamental physics, to experimental approaches, to plasma and reactive species diagnostics. It provides an overview of the development of a wide range of plasma jet devices and their fundamental mechanisms. The book concludes with a discussion of the exciting application of plasmas for cancer treatment. The book provides details on experimental methods including expert tips and caveats. covers novel devices driven by various power sources and the impact of operating conditions on concentrations and fluxes of the reactive species. discusses the latest advances including theory, modeling, and simulation approaches. gives an introduction, overview and details on state of the art diagnostics of small scale high gradient atmospheric pressure plasmas. covers the use of N-APPJs for cancer applications, including discussion of destruction of cancer cells, mechanisms of action, and selectivity studies. XinPei Lu is a Chair Professor in the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Stephan Reuter is currently Visiting Professor at Université Paris-Saclay. In a recent Alexander von Humboldt research fellowship at Princeton University, he performed ultrafast laser spectroscopy on cold plasmas. Mounir Laroussi is Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering and director of the Plasma Engineering and Medicine Institute at Old Dominion University. He is a Fellow of IEEE and recipient of an IEEE Merit Award. DaWei Liu is Professor in the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at Huazhong University of Science and Technology.
Yu, Rang Park, Hye, Won Lee, Sung, Bum Cho, and Ju, Han Kim
In: Kuhn, Klaus A (Editor); Warren, James R (Editor); Leong, Tze-Yun (Editor). Medinfo 2007: Proceedings of the 12th World Congress on Health (Medical) Informatics; Building Sustainable Health Systems. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2007: 1235-1239.
Cancer--Treatment--Research, Cancer--Research, Medicine--Research, and Tumors--Treatment--Research
In 1950, a diagnosis of cancer was all but a death sentence. Mortality rates only got worse, and as late as 1986, an article in the New England Journal of Medicine lamented: “We are losing the war against cancer.” Cancer is one of humankind's oldest and most persistent enemies; it has been called the existential disease. But we are now entering a new, and more positive, phase in this long campaign. While cancer has not been cured—and a cure may elude us for a long time yet—there has been a revolution in our understanding of its nature. Years of brilliant science have revealed how this individualistic disease seizes control of the foundations of life—our genes—and produces guerrilla cells that can attack and elude treatments. Armed with those insights, scientists have been developing more effective weapons and producing better outcomes for patients. Paul A. Marks, MD, has been a leader in these efforts to finally control this devastating disease.Marks helped establish the strategy for the “war on cancer” in 1971 as a researcher and member of President Nixon's cancer panel. As the president and chief executive officer for nineteen years at the world's pre-eminent cancer hospital, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, he was instrumental in ending the years of futility. He also developed better therapies that promise a new era of cancer containment. Some cancers, like childhood leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, that were once deadly conditions, are now survivable—even curable. New steps in prevention and early diagnosis are giving patients even more hope. On the Cancer Frontier is Marks'account of the transformation in our understanding of cancer and why there is growing optimism in our ability to stop it.