Infectious Diseases, Microbiology (medical), General Medicine, Enterovirus, medicine.disease_cause, medicine, business.industry, business, Internal medicine, medicine.medical_specialty, Medical microbiology, Meningitis, medicine.disease, Retrospective cohort study, Antibiotic therapy, Pleocytosis, Cerebrospinal fluid, and Enterovirus meningitis
To estimate the impact of implementing in-hospital enterovirus (EV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with same-day turn-around-time (TAT) on length-of-stay (LOS), antibiotic use and on cost per patient with suspected EV meningitis, compared with testing at an outside reference laboratory. A model-based analysis using a retrospective cohort of all hospitalized children with CSF EV PCR testing done between November 2013 and 2017. The primary outcome measured was the potential date of discharge if the EV PCR result had been available on the same day. Patients with positive EV PCR were considered for potential earlier discharge once clinically stable with no reason for hospitalization other than intravenous antibiotics. Descriptive statistics and cost-sensitivity analyses were performed. CSF EV PCR testing was done on 153 patients, of which 44 (29%) had a positive result. Median test TAT was 5.3 days (IQR 3.9-7.6). Median hospital LOS was 5 days (IQR 3-12). Most (86%) patients received intravenous antibiotics with mean duration of 5.72 ± 6.51 days. No patients with positive EV PCR had a serious bacterial infection. We found that same-day test TAT would reduce LOS and duration of intravenous antibiotics by 0.50 days (95%CI 0.33-0.68) and 0.67 days (95%CI 0.42-0.91), respectively. Same-day test TAT was associated with a cost reduction of 342.83CAD (95%CI 178.14-517.00) per patient with suspected EV meningitis. Compared with sending specimens to a reference laboratory, performing CSF EV PCR in-hospital with same-day TAT was associated with decreased LOS, antibiotic therapy, and cost per patient.
Downie, Mallory L., Alghounaim, Mohammad, Davidge, Kristen M., Yau, Yvonne, Walsh, Thomas J., Pope, Elena, Somers, Gino R., Waters, Valerie, and Robinson, Lisa A.
Transplantation, Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health, Renal transplant, Mucormycosis, medicine.disease, medicine, Surgical excision, Cutaneous mucormycosis, Full recovery, Kidney transplantation, business.industry, business, Surgery, medicine.medical_specialty, Antifungal, and medicine.drug_class
Mucormycosis is a rare and potentially life-threatening infection, typically affecting immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of an adolescent boy who developed primary isolated cutaneous mucormycosis in the early period following kidney transplantation. Surgical excision was performed using intraoperative fungal staining to obtain clear margins, followed by topical and systemic antifungal therapy. A skin graft was then applied to the excised area with good healing, and the patient made a full recovery.
BACKGROUNDPolymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on the detection of the toxin B gene are replacing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)–based toxin production detection or cell cytotoxicity assay in most laboratories.OBJECTIVETo determine the proportion of pediatric patients diagnosed withClostridium difficile infection by PCR who would have also been diagnosed by ELISA and to compare the clinical characteristics of PCR+/ELISA+ vs PCR+/ELISA− patients.METHODSUsing the microbiology laboratory information system, stool samples positive for C. difficile by PCR between October 2010 and July 2014 were identified. Using frozen stool specimens, an ELISA for toxin A and B was performed. A retrospective medical chart review was conducted to obtain demographic and clinical data. Duplicate samples were excluded.RESULTSA total of 136 PCR-positive samples underwent ELISA testing: 54 (40%) were positive for toxin A or B. The mean (SD) age of the entire cohort was 8.5 (6.2) years. There was no difference in age, gender, clinical manifestation, previous medical problems, and management between patients positive or negative by ELISA. However, patients positive by ELISA were more likely to have had a recent exposure to antibiotics (67.9% vs 50%; crude odds ratio, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.03–4.28]).CONCLUSIONIn our pediatric population, 60% of patients with C. difficile diagnosed by PCR had no toxin detectable by ELISA. ELISA-negative patients were less likely to have received an antibiotic recently compared with ELISA-positive patients. These results highlight the need to standardize laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of C. difficile infections in children.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:1087–1093