The status of the Sunni Ulama (religious scholars) in modern times has attracted renewed academic interest, in light of their assertiveness regarding moral and sociopolitical issues on the Arab-Muslim agenda. This has led to a reassessment of the narrative of historians and social scientists, who usually depicted the Ulama as marginal players in comparison with the new lay Islamists, and certainly with the Shia Ulama. The Sunni'Ulama''s vitality is undoubtedly related to the continuing Islamic resurgence, which since the 1970s has forced the political elites to rely increasingly on the religious establishment in order to neutralize the Islamist challenge, thus allowing the Ulama greater freedom of activity. Hatina's study returns to an earlier period and shows that such vitality has its roots in the second half of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries. Hatina traces the diverse Ulama reactions to this period of accelerated state building and national cohesion.
Ulama -- Egypt, Egypt -- History -- French occupation, and 1798-1801
This is a study of the role of the 'ulama' during the French occupation of Egypt: 1798-1801. Bonaparte penetrated Islamic Egypt, marking the beginnings of the modern era. The French military brilliance dominated the East-West confrontation. Napoleon's military victories were short-lived when prominent 'ulama', whom he thought had been wooed to his side, organized rebellions against him from Al-Azhar. Although his attempt to raise the status of the Egyptian 'ulama' to assist him in governing the people was successful, it was not enough to prevent his own hasty exodus from Egypt. The French left lasting cultural influences in Egypt: the latent concept of nationalism; and a systematic mode of study. But the French could not establish a long-lasting rule in Egypt due to outside military pressures and the fact that Egyptians looked to the 'ulama' as the true leaders of the people.
Ulama -- Egypt., Muhammad 'Abduh, 1849-1905 -- Views on Islamic doctrine, Muhammad 'Abduh, and 1849-1905 -- Views on reason.
Reason is an important focus-word in ‘ Abduh’s worldview and has a great influence' on his theological system and news. Because of his position of ascribing' great powers to reason and limited- functions to revelation, his system and views are in glaring contradiction with those of the Ash'ariyah who have a distrust in the power of reason and great reliance on revelation. His system and views, on the other hand, greatly resemble those of the Mu’tazilah who have been wel1-known for their high appreciation of the power- of reason and little reliance on revelation. With those of the maturidiyah in both their Samarqandi and Bukhara branches, who adopt an intermediate position pertaining to the power of reason and the function of revelation, Abduh' s theological system and views have many disagreements. Contrary to the prevalent opinion Abduh is neither an Ash’arI, nor a maturidi, nor an eclectic. He is rather a Mu' tazili.