Evgenii L'vovich L Feinberg, Igor Michailovich Dremin, Evgenii L'vovich L Feinberg, and Igor Michailovich Dremin
Physicists--Soviet Union--Biography and Physicists--Germany--Biography
The book is a collection of memoirs on famous Soviet physicists of the 20th century, such as Tamm, Vavilov, Sakharov, Landau and others. The memoirs were originally written in Russian by E L Feinberg. The narrative is situated within a remarkably well-described historical, cultural and social context. Of special interest are the chapters devoted to Soviet and German atomic projects.
Written by an award-winning cosmologist, this brand new textbook provides advanced undergraduate and graduate students with coverage of the very latest developments in the observational science of cosmology. The book is separated into three parts; part I covers particle physics and general relativity, part II explores an account of the known history of the universe, and part III studies inflation. Full treatment of the origin of structure, scalar fields, the cosmic microwave background and the early universe are provided. Problems are included in the book with solutions provided in a separate solutions manual. More advanced extension material is offered in the Appendix, ensuring the book is fully accessible to students with a wide variety of background experience. Features: Incorporates the latest experimental results, at a time of rapid change in the field Explores the origin of structure and the Cosmic Microwave Background Includes an extensive number of problems and a corresponding solutions manual
Designed for teaching astrophysics to physics students at advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level, this textbook also provides an overview of astrophysics for astrophysics graduate students, before they delve into more specialized volumes. Assuming background knowledge at the level of a physics major, the textbook develops astrophysics from the basics without requiring any previous study in astronomy or astrophysics. Physical concepts, mathematical derivations and observational data are combined in a balanced way to provide a unified treatment. Topics such as general relativity and plasma physics, which are not usually covered in physics courses but used extensively in astrophysics, are developed from first principles. While the emphasis is on developing the fundamentals thoroughly, recent important discoveries are highlighted at every stage.
The 250 years from the second half of the 17th century saw the birth of modern physics and its growth into one of the most successful of the sciences. The reader will find here the lives of 55 of the most remarkable physicists from that era described in brief biographies. All the characters profiled have made important contributions to physics, either through their ideas, through their teaching or in other ways. The emphasis is on their varied life-stories, not on the details of their achievements, but when read in sequence the biographies, which are organised chronologically, convey in human terms something of the way in which physics was created. Scientific and mathematical detail is kept to a minimum, so the reader who is interested in physics, but perhaps lacks the background to follow technical accounts, will find this collection an inviting and easy path through the subject's modern development.
Here is a lively history of modern physics, as seen through the lives of thirty men and women from the pantheon of physics. William H. Cropper vividly portrays the life and accomplishments of such giants as Galileo and Isaac Newton, Marie Curie and Ernest Rutherford, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, right up to contemporary figures such as Richard Feynman, Murray Gell-Mann, and Stephen Hawking. We meet scientists--all geniuses--who could be gregarious, aloof, unpretentious, friendly, dogged, imperious, generous to colleagues or contentious rivals. As Cropper captures their personalities, he also offers vivid portraits of their great moments of discovery, their bitter feuds, their relations with family and friends, their religious beliefs and education. In addition, Cropper has grouped these biographies by discipline--mechanics, thermodynamics, particle physics, and others--each section beginning with a historical overview. Thus in the section on quantum mechanics, readers can see how the work of Max Planck influenced Niels Bohr, and how Bohr in turn influenced Werner Heisenberg. Our understanding of the physical world has increased dramatically in the last four centuries. With Great Physicists, readers can retrace the footsteps of the men and women who led the way.
This book provides undergraduate physics majors and students of related sciences with a sound basic understanding of electronics and how it is used, principally in the physical sciences. While today few science students go on to careers that demand an ability to design and build electronic circuits, many will use and rely on electronics. As scientists, they will require an appropriate level of fundamental knowledge that enables them, for example, to understand what electronic equipment is doing, to correctly interpret the measurements obtained, and to appreciate the numerous links between electronics and how it is practiced, and other areas of science. Discussing electronics in the broader context and from the point of view of the scientist, this book is intended for students who are not planning to become electronics specialists. It has been written in a relatively informal, personal style and includes detailed examples, as well as some “outside the box” material to inspire thought and creativity. A selection of relevant exercises is included at the end of each chapter.
Mathematical physics, Stochastic processes, and Le´vy processes
Stochastic processes are an essential part of numerous branches of physics, as well as in biology, chemistry, and finance. This textbook provides a solid understanding of stochastic processes and stochastic calculus in physics, without the need for measure theory. In avoiding measure theory, this textbook gives readers the tools necessary to use stochastic methods in research with a minimum of mathematical background. Coverage of the more exotic Levy processes is included, as is a concise account of numerical methods for simulating stochastic systems driven by Gaussian noise. The book concludes with a non-technical introduction to the concepts and jargon of measure-theoretic probability theory. With over 70 exercises, this textbook is an easily accessible introduction to stochastic processes and their applications, as well as methods for numerical simulation, for graduate students and researchers in physics.
This book is designed as a practical and intuitive introduction to probability, statistics and random quantities for physicists. The book aims at getting to the main points by a clear, hands-on exposition supported by well-illustrated and worked-out examples. A strong focus on applications in physics and other natural sciences is maintained throughout. In addition to basic concepts of random variables, distributions, expected values and statistics, the book discusses the notions of entropy, Markov processes, and fundamentals of random number generation and Monte-Carlo methods.
Physics - Popular Physics, Mathematics - Probability, and Physics - Physics and Society
The Newcomb--Benford law, also known as the first-digit law, gives the probability distribution associated with the first digit of a dataset, so that the first significant digit has a probability of $30.1$ % of being $1$ and $4.58$ % of being $9$. This law can be extended to the second and next significant digits. In this article, an introduction to the discovery of the law, its derivation from the scale invariance property, as well as some applications and examples, are presented. Additionally, a simple dynamic model simulating how an initial dataset changes if sequentially multiplied by a factor $2$ is proposed. Within this model, it is proved that the first-digit distribution of the generated datasets irreversibly converges to the Newcomb--Benford law. Comment: 8 pages, 8 figures
Brian R. Martin, Graham Shaw, Brian R. Martin, and Graham Shaw
Mathematics and Mathematical physics
Mathematics for Physicists is a relatively short volume covering all the essential mathematics needed for a typical first degree in physics, from a starting point that is compatible with modern school mathematics syllabuses. Early chapters deliberately overlap with senior school mathematics, to a degree that will depend on the background of the individual reader, who may quickly skip over those topics with which he or she is already familiar. The rest of the book covers the mathematics that is usually compulsory for all students in their first two years of a typical university physics degree, plus a little more. There are worked examples throughout the text, and chapter-end problem sets.Mathematics for Physicists features: Interfaces with modern school mathematics syllabuses All topics usually taught in the first two years of a physics degree Worked examples throughout Problems in every chapter, with answers to selected questions at the end of the book and full solutions on a website This text will be an excellent resource for undergraduate students in physics and a quick reference guide for more advanced students, as well as being appropriate for students in other physical sciences, such as astronomy, chemistry and earth sciences.
With more and more physicists and physics students exploring the possibility of utilizing their advanced math skills for a career in the finance industry, this much-needed book quickly introduces them to fundamental and advanced finance principles and methods. Quantitative Finance for Physicists provides a short, straightforward introduction for those who already have a background in physics. Find out how fractals, scaling, chaos, and other physics concepts are useful in analyzing financial time series. Learn about key topics in quantitative finance such as option pricing, portfolio management, and risk measurement. This book provides the basic knowledge in finance required to enable readers with physics backgrounds to move successfully into the financial industry.• Short, self-contained book for physicists to master basic concepts and quantitative methods of finance • Growing field—many physicists are moving into finance positions because of the high-level math required •Draws on the author's own experience as a physicist who moved into a financial analyst position
There is increasing pressure generally for lecturers to adapt their supervision practices of postgraduate students to better prepare postgraduate students for careers outside of academia. In this paper we examine what such pressure may mean for the supervision and preparation of theoretical physicists specifically, theoretical physics being a sub-discipline of physics usually perceived as a highly specialised niche area of scientific practice. In this exploratory study we apply the concepts of the Specialisation Dimension of Legitimation Code Theory to analyse and reveal the dominant concepts and codes, as well as the code shifts that may occur during postgraduate studies, based on an autoethnographic account of theoretical physicist identity development. The findings demonstrate an underpinning value for both knowledge and knower attributes in the journey to becoming a legitimate theoretical physicist, and the critical role played by postgraduate supervisors in facilitating the process of theoretical physicist identity development. Also highlighted are possible implications for supervisors faced with students intending to take up employment outside of academia. Comment: 16 pages, 3 figures
In the spring of 1945 the Allies arrested the physicists they believed had worked on the German nuclear programme. Interned in an English country house owned by MI6, their conversations were secretly recorded. Operation Epsilon sought to determine how close Nazi Germany had come to building an atomic bomb. It was in this quiet setting – Farm Hall, near Cambridge – that the interned physicists first heard of the attack on Hiroshima. Aside from changing the course of history, that night was also one of great shock and personal defeat for the physicists – they were under the assumption that they alone had discovered nuclear fission. This is the story of Nazi Germany's hunt for a nuclear bomb. It is a tale of the genius and guilt of lauded, respected scientists.
Physics - Physics Education, Computer Science - Computers and Society, Computer Science - Emerging Technologies, Quantum Physics, and K.3.2
Quantum computing is a topic mainly rooted in physics, and it has been gaining rapid popularity in recent years. A need for extending the educational reach to groups outside of physics has also been becoming a necessity. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that a shift in educational mindset which considers quantum computing as a generalized probability theory rather than a field emanating from physics and the utilization of quantum programming as an education tool is effective for introducing quantum computing to a wider audience. 317 participants with different educational backgrounds from 10 countries took part in this study. Data is collected from 22 workshops organized and administered by QWorld initiative, covering an educational material formulated according to this mindset. The increase in basic knowledge of quantum computing concepts is assessed using a single group pre/post-test design. The results show that there is a significant increase in the knowledge levels of the participants on quantum computing concepts regardless of their gender, age, educational level and background. The study shows that hands-on programming based approach focusing on quantum computing as a generalized probability theory is an effective way to introduce quantum computing to an audience with no background in quantum physics.
This is a book that the author wishes had been available to him when he was student. It reflects his interest in knowing (like expert mathematicians) the most relevant mathematics for theoretical physics, but in the style of physicists. This means that one is not facing the study of a collection of definitions, remarks, theorems, corollaries, lemmas, etc. but a narrative — almost like a story being told — that does not impede sophistication and deep results.It covers differential geometry far beyond what general relativists perceive they need to know. And it introduces readers to other areas of mathematics that are of interest to physicists and mathematicians, but are largely overlooked. Among these is Clifford Algebra and its uses in conjunction with differential forms and moving frames. It opens new research vistas that expand the subject matter.In an appendix on the classical theory of curves and surfaces, the author slashes not only the main proofs of the traditional approach, which uses vector calculus, but even existing treatments that also use differential forms for the same purpose.
Physics - Physics and Society, Computer Science - Social and Information Networks, and Physics - Applied Physics
How long until this paper is forgotten? Collective forgetting is the process by which the attention received by cultural pieces decays as time passes. Recent work modeled this decay as the result of two different processes, one linked to communicative memory --memories sustained by human communication-- and cultural memory --memories sustained by the physical recording of content. Yet, little is known on how the collective forgetting dynamic changes over time. Are older cultural pieces forgotten at a lower rate than newer ones? Here, we study the temporal changes of collective memory and attention by focusing on two knowledge communities: inventors and physicists. We use data on patents from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and physics papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) to quantify how collective forgetting has changed over time. The model enables us to distinguish between two branches of forgetting. One branch is short-lived, going directly from communicative memory to oblivion. The other one is long-lived going from communicative to cultural memory and then to oblivion. The data analysis shows an increasing forgetting rate for both communities as the information grows. Furthermore, these knowledge communities seem to be increasing their selectivity at storing valuable cultural pieces in their cultural memory. These findings provide empirical confirmation on the forgetting as an annulment hypothesis and show that knowledge communities can effectively slow down the rising of collective forgetting at improving their cultural selectivity.
Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence, Computer Science - Discrete Mathematics, Mathematics - Optimization and Control, and 90B35
The Young Physicists Tournament is an established team-oriented scientific competition between high school students from 37 countries on 5 continents. The competition consists of scientific discussions called Fights. Three or four teams participate in each Fight, each of whom presents a problem while rotating the roles of Presenter, Opponent, Reviewer, and Observer among them. The rules of a few countries require that each team announce in advance 3 problems they will present at the national tournament. The task of the organizers is to choose the composition of Fights in such a way that each team presents each of its chosen problems exactly once and within a single Fight no problem is presented more than once. Besides formalizing these feasibility conditions, in this paper we formulate several additional fairness conditions for tournament schedules. We show that the fulfillment of some of them can be ensured by constructing suitable edge colorings in bipartite graphs. To find fair schedules, we propose integer linear programs and test them on real as well as randomly generated data.