To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/acps.12924/abstract Byline: P. S. Ritter, J. Schwabedal, M. Brandt, W. Schrempf, F. Brezan, A. Krupka, C. Sauer, A. Pfennig,M. Bauer, B. Soltmann,E. Nikitin Keywords: bipolar disorder; sleep; sleep spindles; biomarker; circadian rhythms Objective Bipolar disorder is a severe mental disorder for which currently no reliable biomarkers exist. It has been shown that patients with schizophrenia but not with unipolar depression have a reduced density of fast sleep spindles during N2 sleep. The aim of this study was to assess fast sleep spindle density in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Methods Patients with bipolar disorder (n = 24) and healthy control subjects (n = 25) were assessed using all-night polysomnography. Sleep spindles within stage N2 sleep were identified by visual inspection and subdivided into fast (>13 Hz) and slow ([less than or equal to]13 Hz) spindles. All spindles were subsequently characterised by density, frequency, amplitude, duration and coherence. Results Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder were found to have a reduced density and a lower mean frequency of fast spindles. Slow spindle density and frequency did not differ between groups. There were no differences regarding amplitude, duration or coherence. Conclusions A reduction in fast spindle density during N2 sleep points towards thalamic dysfunction as a potential neurobiological mechanism of relevance in bipolar disorder. In addition, a reduced sleep spindle density could be interpreted as a common endophenotype shared with schizophrenia but not unipolar depression and may - if replicated - be of utility in early recognition and risk stratification. CAPTION(S): Appendix S1. Fast spindle (a[yen]13 Hz) plotted against threshold amplitude ([MU]V) for stage N2 comparing patients with bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects. Appendix S2. Transhemispheric coherence of spindles during N2 sleep. Appendix S3. Fast spindle characteristics during N2-sleep comparing patients with bipolar disorder with lithium treatment (Li) and without (no-Li). Appendix S4. Regression model with age, gender, lithium and number of depressive episodes as independent variables to predict fast spindle density in C4. Appendix S5. Surrounding a spindle annotation (gray background) shows brief waxing and waning of about 12-Hz oscillations characteristic for spindles.
Recent studies have shown that the dynamics of action potential generation in neurons in vertebrates, in contrast to invertebrates, is significantly different from the slow exponential dynamics predicted by the Hodgkin--Huxley equations and is characterized by a sudden kink-like origin in the form of a steep linear increase. In this context, new and important aspects of studies of the links between the dynamics of action potential generation and the frequency coding abilities of neurons and neuronal networks have been found. This review addresses contemporary models describing the kink-type dynamics of action potential generation, including an alternative model of cooperative activation of potential-dependent sodium channels and the effects of the dynamics of action potential generation on the processing abilities of neural networks. The relevance of this direction comes from the fact that despite the rapid development of neuron simulation in recent years, generally accepted models of nerve cells cannot provide a realistic description of the complete dynamics of action potential generation in mammalian neurons or correct assessments of the ability of these cells to encode high-frequency signals. Contemporary experimental and theoretical analyses of action potential generation and neuronal encoding, as summarized in the present work, are highly significant for improving our understanding of nerve cell physiology and assisting the creation of more accurate and correct models of neurons.
Bogatishcheva, N. S., Faizullin, M. Z., and Nikitin, E. D.
Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A. Sept, 2017, Vol. 91 Issue 9, p1647, 7 p.
Biodiesel fuels -- Thermal properties and Esters -- Thermal properties
The heat capacities and thermal diffusivities of ethyl esters of liquid n-alkane acids [C.sub.n][H.sub.2n--1][O.sub.2][C.sub.2]H.sub.5 with the number of carbon atoms in the parent acid n = 10, 11, 12, 14, and 16 are measured. The heat capacities are measured using a DSC 204 F1 Phoenix heat flux differential scanning calorimeter (Netzsch, Germany) in the temperature range of 305--375 K. Thermal diffusivities are measured by means of laser flash method on an LFA-457 instrument (Netzsch, Germany) at temperatures of 305--400 K. An equation is derived for the dependence of the molar heat capacities of the investigated esters on temperature. It is shown that the dependence of molar heat capacity C .sub.p,m(298.15 K) on n (n = 1--6) is close to linear. The dependence of thermal diffusivity on temperature in the investigated temperature range is described by a first-degree polynomial, but thermal diffusivity a (298.15 K) as a function of n has a minimum at n = 5.
This article describes the organization principles for wireless mesh networks (softwaredefined networks of mobile objects). The emphasis is placed on developing effective routing algorithms for these networks. The mathematical model of the system is the standard transportation network. The key parameter of the routing system is the node reachability coefficient, i.e., the function that depends on several basic and additional parameters (mesh factors), which characterize the route between two network nodes. Each pair (arc, node) has been juxtaposed to a composite parameter, which characterizes the reachability of the node by the route, which begins with this arc. The best (shortest) route between two nodes is the route with the maximum reachability coefficient. The rules of building and updating the routing tables by the network nodes have been described. With the announcement from the neighbor, the node gets information about the connection energy and reliability, the announcement time of receipt, and the absence of transient nodes, as well as about the connection capability. This information is used by the nodes as the basis for applying the penalization (decreasing the reachability coefficient) or the reward (increasing the reachability coefficient) to all routes through this neighbor node. The penalization/reward scheme has the following separate aspects: (1) penalization for actuality of information (2) penalization/reward for node reliability (3) penalization for connection energy (4) penalization for the current connection capability. The simulator of the wireless mesh network of mobile objects has been developed based on the suggested heuristic routing algorithms. The description and characteristics of the simulator have been stated in the article. The peculiarities of its program realization have also been considered.
Somov, V. E., Zalishchevskii, G. D., Brusnin, A. G., Ryabinin, I. V., Vasil'ev, V. V., Salamatova, E. V., Sadchikov, I. A., and Nikitin, E. E.
Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils. Nov 2016, Vol. 52 Issue 5, p527, 9 p.
Author(s): V. E. Somov[sup.1], G. D. Zalishchevskii[sup.1], A. G. Brusnin[sup.1], I. V. Ryabinin[sup.1], V. V. Vasil'ev[sup.2], E. V. Salamatova[sup.2], I. A. Sadchikov[sup.2], E. E. Nikitin[sup.2] Author Affiliations: (1) Kinef Ltd., [...] The group chemical composition of oil fractions refined at Kinef Ltd. is shown to change with time. The oxidation rate and penetration index of asphalt obtained from heavy residual increase as the penetration increases. The extensibility of road asphalt decreases markedly as the paraffin content increases. Road asphalt meeting PNST 1-2012 specifications was produced by compounding asphalts oxidized to different degrees.
Dashevskaya, E. I., Litvin, I., Nikitin, E. E., and Troe, J.
Journal of Chemical Physics; 7/2/2018, Vol. 149 Issue 1, pN.PAG-N.PAG, 10p, 4 Charts, 8 Graphs
VIBRATIONAL relaxation (Molecular physics), VIBRONIC coupling, POTENTIAL energy surfaces, AB initio quantum chemistry methods, NITROGEN oxides, ARGON, and MOLECULAR collisions
In this paper, the electronically nonadiabatic Landau-Zener (LZ) mechanism for the vibrational relaxation v = 1 → v = 0 of NO ( X 2 Π ) in collisions with Ar ( S 0 1 ) is discussed. It corresponds to nonadiabatic transitions between two crossing vibronic potential energy surfaces (PESs) originating from vibrational states of the collision complex and supported by two coupled electronic PESs. The LZ rate coefficients k 10 LZ are calculated within the uniform Airy approach in the reaction coordinate approximation with parameters derived from ab initio PESs and an asymptotic estimation of the Franck–Condon factor in the nonadiabatic coupling region. The rate coefficients are close to the experimental rate coefficients available over the range of 900–2500 K, where the electronically adiabatic Landau-Teller (LT) mechanism with the rate coefficients k 10 LT does not make a noticeable contribution to the total relaxation rate. The ratio k 10 LZ / k 10 LT increases with temperature and the LZ and LT mechanisms have comparable rates at about 4000 K. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Nizamov, I. S., Nikitin, E. N., Batyeva, E. S., Nizamov, I. D., Shulaeva, M. P., Pozdeev, O. K., and Cherkasov, R. A.
Russian Journal of Organic Chemistry. Sept, 2015, Vol. 51 Issue 9, p1272, 5 p.
Ammonium compounds, Ammonium paratungstate, Bacteria, Medical colleges, Hydrogen, Phenols, and Resveratrol
Reactions of 4-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)phenol and 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenol with 2,4-diaryl-1,3,2[lambda].sup.5,4[lambda].sup.5- dithiadiphosphetane 2,4-disulfides gave the corresponding O-4-hetarylphenyl hydrogen arylphosphonodithioates which were converted into ammonium salts. The latter showed antimicrobial activity against Grampositive bacteria and antifungal activity against fungi of the genus Candida.
Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology. Feb 2015, Vol. 45 Issue 2, p131, 8 p.
Neurosciences -- Methods, Neurons -- Research, Dyes and dyeing -- Usage, and Neurological research
Studies of the electrical activity and plasticity of neural networks, individual nerve cells, and their subcellular compartments are now impractical without using optical methods to visualize functional signals which allow electrical events to be recorded both in many neurons simultaneously and in individual dendrites and axons and provide for linking these data to precise morphological images. Use of voltage-sensitive dyes (VSD) is the only of the small number of currently available methods which combines high spatial resolution with the ability to record ultrafast signals (<0.1 msec) in real time with a high signal:noise ratio. Significant progress in applying VSD has been made in the last decade, particularly in analysis of the occurrence and encoding of electrical signals in dendrites and axons, and has resulted from improvements in the method associated with using the best dyes in combination with sequential improvements in apparatus and optical instruments. This has allowed the method to demonstrate its value and effectiveness and advance from purely technical areas to the arsenal of major equipment in the world's leading laboratories working at the frontiers of cell biology and neurophysiology.
Antoshina, E. Ju., Barakova, A. N., Nikitin, E. S., and Chalyy, D. Ju.
Automatic Control and Computer Sciences. Dec 2014, Vol. 48 Issue 7, p589, 5 p.
Information accessibility, Algorithm, Information management -- Safety and security measures, and Algorithms -- Safety and security measures
We consider while-language programs with variables of two security types: low and high. Security static analysis of information flows of such programs identifies insecure information flows which can cause leaks. Semantic rules of such an analysis which was proposed in  assign security types for expressions, statements and compositions of statements. We use these rules to propose an algorithm of security static analysis tries to discover a security type of the program under consideration. If such a type can be assigned, information flows of the program are secure otherwise, it contains insecure information flows. We have used flex and bison  tools to implement a translator for a while-language into the MMIX computer  instruction sequence.