INFANT mortality, ECONOMIC development, FAMILIES, INCOME distribution, MUNICH (Germany) -- History, HISTORY, and SOCIAL history
Abstract: During most of the nineteenth century, Bavaria was notorious for infant mortality rates that were among the highest in Europe. After 1870, infant mortality in Bavaria began a sustained decline. This decline, which was impressive in urban areas, was even more dramatic in Bavaria's capital, Munich. From a peak of 40 deaths per 100 births in the 1860s, infant mortality had fallen two‐thirds by 1914. This article examines the causes of infant mortality in rural and urban districts of Bavaria from 1880 to 1910 and in Munich from 1825 up to shortly before the First World War. In rural Bavaria, structural change in agriculture lowered infant mortality, even as stark differences in infant survival driven by income gaps and deficient infant care remained. In urban areas, high fertility was strongly associated with high infant mortality. Individual‐level data from Munich reveal that infant care, fertility, and incomes mattered. Even prior to industrialization, occupational status influenced infant survival. Munich's growth into a leading industrial centre after 1875 apparently widened the gap between rich and poor. Families at the top of the occupational distribution and couples able to acquire real property saw the steepest declines in infant mortality. The poorest one‐third without property saw little improvement. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
It is hard to believe, looking down on Munich from the top of St Peter's, the city's oldest parish church, that the city spread-eagled below lay in ruins in 1945 at the end of the Second World War. Having clambered up the 297 steps to the top of the church tower, one is struck just as much by the historic landmarks — be it the Frauenkirche (Church of Our Lady) or the neo-gothic splendour of the Neues Rathaus (New Town Hall) — as by the Mediterranean-style terracotta tiles and the closeness of the Alps to the south. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
HISTORY periodicals, CAREER development, AMERICAN historians, SOVIET Union -- Foreign relations, FOREIGN relations of the United States, MUNICH (Germany) -- History, HISTORIOGRAPHY, DIPLOMATIC history, HISTORY, and TWENTIETH century
The article presents the author's view on her career with the journal "Diplomatic History" as of April 2017. Topics include the job market in early 1970s, the founding of the journal that coincided with numerous social, economic, and political upheavals, and her experience of conducting an overview of studies on the historiography in the Soviet Union's role in the 1938 Munich crisis. Also discussed are her experience of working with David F. Trask and her career as an analyst in the American intelligence community.
History Today. Dec2008, Vol. 58 Issue 12, p70-70. 1/2p. 1 Color Photograph.
HISTORY, NONFICTION, and MUNICH (Germany)
This curiously old-fashioned book has distinct merits. It tells the story of the Munich crisis with sustained narrative vim. It offers compelling character sketches of leading dramatis personae such as Sir Nevile Henderson, whom a fellow diplomat described as 'Hitler's ambassador to us, rather than ours to Hitler'. It provides some new details culled from wide reading and archival research. It even contains a photograph of the Swastika being raised over Cardiff's City Hall on October 2nd, 1938, by order of the Lord Mayor, to celebrate Neville Chamberlain's triumph. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]