New Republic; 8/24/27, Vol. 52 Issue 664, p6-8, 3p
LETTERS and ACTIONS & defenses (Law)
The article presents a letter addressing questions for the committee appointed by Governor Alvan T. Fuller concerning their investigation of the case of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, two Italians suspected for the Braintree crime in Massachusetts. The sender asks if it is true that Judge Webster Thayer had to pass on important motions for new trials after his appearance of being hostile and prejudice. He questions if the testimony of Stephen Jay Gould has been suppressed in the trial.
The American Naturalist; January 1965, Vol. 99 Issue: 904 p5-18, 14p
Interpretation of the coefficient, b, in the allometric equation, y = b xk, is much disputed, and many presume it devoid of biological meaning. Difficulties impeding the interpretation of b are resolved: 1) biological significance cannot be dismissed on dimensional grounds; 2) the interval over which the measurements are valid must be stated as part of the equation; 3) b considered as the y-value at x = 1, in general has no biological meaning; 4) relations between b and k in a family of allometric equations have no biological significance. Examples which illustrate the biological meaning of b are presented in three categories: ontogenetic examples; b as a taxonomic indicator; phylogenetic and evolutionary examples. For a general interpretation of b in y = b xkwhere k is held constant, b is expressed in terms of a linear scale factor "s" which denotes relative magnitudes between corresponding sets of data having the same dimensionless properties (y/x, dy/dx). b can thus be interpreted as a factor dependent upon scale; and the allometric equation re-written y = s1-kxk, xi≤ x ≤ xj, k ≠ 1. It is concluded that b is not only biologically interpretable, but that expressed in terms of s, it offers a means of quantitatively considering similarity of biologic forms which exists when corresponding measurements are in the same scale ratio (s-ratio), and when corresponding dimensionless numbers are equal.
Journal of the History of Biology; March 1968, Vol. 1 Issue: 1 p41-56, 16p
While the Trigonia story is a microcosmic representation of nineteenth-century evolutionary debates, it also serves as a model for assessing the impact of new empirical material upon a controversial issue potentially explained by several internally consistent but contradictory theories; for there can be no fact quite so pristine as a discovery anticipated by no one. The reaction to modern trigonians was, I suspect, completely typical; all parties to the dispute managed to incorporate the new datum into their systems. Evolutionists emphasized the morphological differences between Mesozoic and modern forms and assumed that the disjunct distribution was an artifact of an imperfect record. Agassiz cited the known distribution in support of special creation, but announced that the discovery of a Tertiary species would discredit none of his ideas. Parkinson could not readily encompass the difference without evident improvement in his progressionist synthesis, but invoked almighty wisdom in his ignorance.
Nature; November 1968, Vol. 220 Issue: 5169 p804-804, 1p
IN separating the polyphyletic Vermetidae (s.l.) into its separate lineages, Morton1noted the extreme anatomical similarity between Vermicularia and the coiled turritellids: “It is in fact little more than a turritellid which has taken on a sessile posture embedded in a hard substratum and proceeded to uncoil its shell whorls” (page 80 of ref. 1). Vermicularia is a ciliary suspension feeder, a common condition among sessile gastropods2. Only a few free living forms feed in this manner and one of these is Turritella. T. communis burrows into mud and may remain indefinitely in its favoured position. (Apex down and inclined at a high angle to the horizontal. The habits of Turritella are described in refs. 3 and 4.) The juvenile, regularly coiled Vermicularia lives in the same manner; its later attachment and uncoiling is a response to the availability of firm objects providing a substrate for rapid upgrowth.
Science; May 1970, Vol. 168 Issue: 3931 p572-573, 2p
As the climate of Pleistocene Bermuda oscillated during the last two glacial cycles, coincident variation occurred for a variety of independent events in the form and diversity of land snails. This variation was influenced primarily by the availability of calcium carbonate for shell construction.
The American Naturalist; March 1971, Vol. 105 Issue: 942 p113-136, 24p
The coefficient b of the power function y = bxahas long been misinterpreted as a measure of size-independent differences between regressions. Just the opposite is true; b is a scale factor that expresses differences in size between comparable animals of the same shape on two or more regressions of constant α. When α is invariant for two regressions, a similarity criterion s can be extracted from the two b-values (s = [b1/b2]1/(1-α)); s measures the relative difference in size at which animals on the two curves have the same shape. If this calculated difference equals the observed difference in size, then the transposition (shift of regression line without change of slope) occurred in order to maintain geometric similarity in a new size range. I present examples of geometric similarity via transposition for body shape in gulls, brain weight in felids and primates, tooth shape in canids, skull form in bovids, the evolution of Gryphaea, the growth of horses, and differences between local races of lobsters and molluses. The literature on dwarfism in humans and animals shows that proportioned change in size can have a simple genetic and developmental basis. As a mode of size change, geometric similarity may be important in macroevolution because: (1) it allows size to change rapidly by uncoupling the usual correlation of growth and development and (2) it can produce a phylogenetic increase in effective organ size when the expected correlation of that organ with body size is negatively allometric.