Higher Education, Minority Groups, Hispanic Americans, College Attendance, College Faculty, Graduate Students, Undergraduate Students, and Disproportionate Representation
Latinos make up 12.5 percent of the U.S. population. They are now the largest (and fastest-growing) racial or ethnic minority group in the United States, surpassing blacks, who make up 12.3 percent of the population. In higher education, however, Latino groups are underrepresented. According to the 2002 "Chronicle of Higher Education Almanac", they account for just over 7 percent of undergraduates. Graduate-student representation is even more distressing, and less than 3 percent of Latinos obtain Ph.D's. Consequently, they make up less than 3 percent of the U.S. professoriate. These percentages show explicitly that, given their representation in the U.S. population, Latinos are seriously underrepresented on faculty bodies. They imply that Latinos are not as qualified as other racial or ethnic groups in higher education or they are victims of discrimination. The percentages, therefore, do not merely describe a particular state of reality; they also "explain" other, perhaps contested, "realities." Thus they generate truths, both negative and positive, about individuals and groups that many do not and cannot know personally. This article suggests that the term "outsider within" is not quite right as a descriptor of racial and ethnic dynamics in higher education. The outsider within, it seems, has that status only because he or she is not white, and not because the person is completely excluded from academe. (Contains 1 note.)[This article was produced by American Association of University Professors.]
HIGHER education, UNIVERSITIES & colleges, EDUCATION -- United States, STATISTICS, and ACADEMIC degrees
The article presents an explanation of the statistics used in "The Chronicle of Higher Education" Almanac, which is included in this issue. According to the article, the statistics are meant to provide a broad overview of higher education in the United States. Because the U.S. Department of Education typically releases statistics from its surveys of colleges and universities two to three years after collecting the data, the figures on academic degrees conferred are for the 2003-2004 academic year.
HIGHER education, EDUCATION statistics, and STATISTICS
Lists the sources for the statistics on higher education in the United States and District of Columbia published in the August 31, 2001 issue of `The Chronicle of Higher Education: Almanac Issue 2001-2.'
Post-secondary academic achievement in the United States has shifted dramatically over the past 30 years in terms of gender; men are underrepresented within the ivory tower (Postsecondary participation rates by sex and race/ethnicity: 1974 - 2003 , 2005). When the intersection of race and gender is examined, enrollment gaps widen even further. Sixty-five percent of Black college enrollment is comprised of female students while Black men make up only 35%. In comparison, Asian college women outnumber Asian college men 54% to 46%, White women outnumber White men 56% to 44%, and Hispanic/Latina women outnumber Hispanic/Latino men 59% to 41% (Chronicle of Higher Education Almanac, 2009). College enrollment patterns are inextricably linked to academic success (i.e., GPA, degree attainment). Currently, more opportunities are available for African Americans and Hispanics to attend college than ever before; however, GPA and the rate of attainment of a Bachelor of Arts degree are significantly lower for African American and Hispanic men when compared to other ethnic/gender combinations (Carter, 2001; Perna, 2000; Porter, 2006; Strayhorn, 2006).The purpose of this study was to determine what factors predict post-secondary education academic success of male students. Academic success was defined as college GPA and degree attainment. I employed a modified version of the Bandura, et al. (1996) theoretical model that identified four factors that influence self efficacy, hence academic success: SES, familial, peer, and self. In my study, I used SES as a control variable and also controlled for high school preparation, two factors that prior research has revealed influence college GPA and degree attainment (Clark, Lee, Goodman, & Yacco, 2008; Perna, 2000).The findings suggest that race and select parental and peer factors can have both negative and positive effects on the academic achievement and persistence of male students in college. One parental and one peer factor were significantly positively associated with success. The remaining factors were significantly, but negatively associated with academic success.
Institutional racism, Pincus, Fred L., and Ehrlich, Howard J.
Scholars, along with the general public, historically have viewed racism as consisting of individual behaviors or institutional policies that intentionally discriminate against minority groups. Sociologist Fred Pincus introduced the concept of structural racism in his article “From Individual to Structural Discrimination” (1994), which was designed to broaden the understanding of racism by focusing on effect rather than intent. Structural racism is defined as institutional policies conceived by the dominant group as race-neutral but that have harmful effects on minority groups. Examples might include college entrance requirements organized primarily around standardized test scores, on which minority groups historically have scored lower than the dominant group; or business layoff systems organized around seniority in a society where minority groups historically have been hired last. If these example policies were instituted, minority groups would be considerably underrepresented in colleges and in the labor force. These policies, intended to be nondiscriminatory, would have negative effects on minority groups. Structural racism is less visible than individual or institutional racism, making it harder to address. The effects, though, perpetuate the subordination of minority groups to the dominant group. Structural racism Structural racism
College entrance examinations, Race relations in the United States, and Education of minorities -- United States
American colleges and universities consider a variety of factors when selecting students for admission. College admissions These factors may include, but are not necessarily limited to, high school grades, class rank, difficulty of courses taken, personal interviews, letters of reference, and samples of students’ written works. In addition, most colleges and universities require students to submit test scores from one or more of several nationally administered standardized tests. Known collectively as college entrance examinations, the most commonly used tests in the United States are the American College Test (ACT) American College Test and the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Scholastic Aptitude Test Some students also may take Achievement Tests (ATs) and the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT). College entrance examinations