Bioreactors, Water--Purification--Equipment and supplies, and Tissue engineering--Equipment and supplies
Bioreactors are the heart of many biotechnological systems that are used for agriculture, environmental, industrial and medical applications. This book presents the design, properties and applications of bioreactors. Topics discussed include bioreactors for microalgae; application of different types of bioreactors in bioprocesses; airlift bioreactors and its application in fermentation and wastewater treatment; development and deployment of a bioreactor for the removal of sulfate and manganese from circumneutral coal mine drainage and kinetic coefficients and factors affecting aeration efficiency as design parameters of MBR. (Imprint: Nova)
In this expert handbook both the topics and contributors are selected so as to provide an authoritative view of possible applications for this new technology. The result is an up-to-date survey of current challenges and opportunities in the design and operation of bioreactors for high-value products in the biomedical and chemical industries. Combining theory and practice, the authors explain such leading-edge technologies as single-use bioreactors, bioreactor simulators, and soft sensor monitoring, and discuss novel applications, such as stem cell production, process development, and multi-product reactors, using case studies from academia as well as from industry. A final section addresses the latest trends, including culture media design and systems biotechnology, which are expected to have an increasing impact on bioreactor design. With its focus on cutting-edge technologies and discussions of future developments, this handbook will remain an invaluable reference for many years to come.
Chandolias, Konstantinos, Pekgenc, Enise, Taherzadeh, Mohammad J, and Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi
Engineering and Technology, Industrial Biotechnology, Teknik och teknologier, Industriell bioteknik, floating MBR, syngas-to-biomethane conversion, high gas hold-up, inoculum-to-syngas ratio, Resource Recovery, and Resursåtervinning
The low gas-to-liquid mass transfer rate is one of the main challenges in syngas biomethanation. In this work, a new concept of the floating membrane system with high gas hold-up was introduced in order to enhance the mass transfer rate of the process. In addition, the effect of the inoculum-to-syngas ratio was investigated. The experiments were conducted at 55 °C with an anaerobic mixed culture in both batch and continuous modes. According to the results from the continuous experiments, the H2 and CO conversion rates in the floating membrane bioreactor were approximately 38% and 28% higher in comparison to the free (suspended) cell bioreactors. The doubling of the thickness of the membrane bed resulted in an increase of the conversion rates of H2 and CO by approximately 6% and 12%, respectively. The highest H2 and CO consumption rates and CH4 production rate recorded were approximately 22 mmol/(L·d), 50 mmol/(L·d), and 34.41 mmol/(L·d), respectively, obtained at the highest inoculum-to-syngas ratio of 0.2 g/mL. To conclude, the use of the floating membrane system enhanced the syngas biomethanation rates, while a thicker membrane bed resulted in even higher syngas conversion rates. Moreover, the increase of the inoculum-to-syngas ratio of up to 0.2 g/mL favored the syngas conversion.
Lukitawesa, Safarudin, Millati, Ria, Taherzadeh Esfahani, Mohammad, and Niklasson, Claes
Renewable Energy. 129:748-753
Industriell bioteknik, Industrial Biotechnology, Bioteknologi med applikationer på växter och djur, Agricultural Biotechnology, Inhibition, Patchouli oil, Patchouli biomass, Anaerobic digestion, and Methane
Patchouli oil is an essential oil extracted from aromatic crop Pogostemon cablin and is widely used in perfumery industry, food industry, or even as medicine. The leaves have 4.6% oil that is extracted by steam but leaves an enormous amount of wastes with ca 0.8% oil. The fresh patchouli plants and its waste were examined in this study for biogas production. The methane yield of these materials were 86 and 179 NmL CH4/gVS, respectively. The patchouli oil showed antibacterial effect, where with the addition of 0.05, 0.5 and 5 g/l patchouli oil reduced biogas production by 16.2 %. 27.2% and more than 100% after 50 days digestion.
Plant scientists usually record several indicators in their abiotic factor experiments. The common statistical management involves univariate analyses. Such analyses generally create a split picture of the effects of experimental treatments since each indicator is addressed independently. The Euclidean distance combined with the information of the control treatment could have potential as an integrating indicator. The Euclidean distance has demonstrated its usefulness in many scientific fields but, as far as we know, it has not yet been employed for plant experimental analyses. To exemplify the use of the Euclidean distance in this field, we performed an experiment focused on the effects of mannitol on sugarcane micropropagation in temporary immersion bioreactors. Five mannitol concentrations were compared: 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM. As dependent variables we recorded shoot multiplication rate, fresh weight, and levels of aldehydes, chlorophylls, carotenoids and phenolics. The statistical protocol which we then carried out integrated all dependent variables to easily identify the mannitol concentration that produced the most remarkable integral effect. Results provided by the Euclidean distance demonstrate a gradually increasing distance from the control in function of increasing mannitol concentrations. 200 mM mannitol caused the most significant alteration of sugarcane biochemistry and physiology under the experimental conditions described here. This treatment showed the longest statistically significant Euclidean distance to the control treatment (2.38). In contrast, 50 and 100 mM mannitol showed the lowest Euclidean distances (0.61 and 0.84, respectively) and thus poor integrated effects of mannitol. The analysis shown here indicates that the use of the Euclidean distance can contribute to establishing a more integrated evaluation of the contrasting mannitol treatments.
Our paper presents results of nutrient removal from household wastewater in the bioreactors with nonwoven filters. The experimental system was constructed from two groups of bioreactors in laboratory scale with gravity-fed wastewater supply. The variable differentiating the work of both tested systems was the method of sewage dosing. In both experimental groups, there was a statistically significant reduction ratio of nitrite nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, and sulfide ions. In spite of the marked difference between concentrations of investigated nutrients in treated wastewater between the experimental groups was not possible to demonstrate in most cases the statistically significant differences. The bioreactors fed once every 12 hours showed an additional effect of desiccation of part of a nonwoven filter and a significant deterioration in the quality of treated sewage. The tested systems of reactors provide the scientific promises for their use on an industrial scale as a system with partial treatment of household sewage. The contents of nutrients in treated wastewater, however, still exceeds the permissible level specified in the standard for treated sewage. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Miniaturized bubble columns (MBCs) have different hydrodynamics in comparison with the larger ones, but there is a lack of scientific data on MBCs. Hence, in this study, the effect of gas hold-up, flow regimes, bubble size distribution on volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient at different pore size spargers and gas flow rates in MBCs in the presence and absence of microorganisms were investigated. It was found that flow regime transition occurred around low gas flow rates of 1.18 and 0.85 cm/s for small (16-40 µm) and large (40-100 µm) pore size spargers, respectively. Gas hold-up and KLa in MBC with small size sparger were higher than those with larger one, with an increasing effect in the presence of microorganisms. A comparison revealed that the wall effect on the flow regime and gas hold-up in MBCs was greater than bench-scale bubble columns. The KLa values significantly increased up to tenfold using small pore size sparger. In the MBC and stirred tank bioreactors, the maximum obtained cell concentrations were OD600 of 41.5 and 43.0, respectively. Furthermore, it was shown that in MBCs, higher KLa and lower turbulency could be achieved at the end of bubbly flow regime.