robot platform, agricultural assistance, auto steering, 공학 -- Engineering, and 시스템
In this paper describes mechatronics for robot platform of agricultural assistance. It can be applied to Agricultural facilities of rural. Robot has auto / manual steering system to be autonomous driving. Robot platform of agricultural assistance designed and developed steering hardware and drive hardware. To verify robot platform is useful, the experiment was performed.
AGRICULTURAL assistance, AGRICULTURE & state, INTERNATIONAL economic assistance, LAND economics, FARMS, TECHNICAL assistance, AGRICULTURAL development projects, FERTILIZERS, and AGRICULTURAL productivity
This paper considers aggregate linkages between government farm sector assistance and the environment. Agricultural intensification (input use per unit of land in production—here measured by fertilizer use per hectare) and extensification (agricultural land expansion) are used as indicators of environmental impacts, and the relationship between these indicators and agricultural assistance is illustrated graphically. Empirical relationships between farm sector assistance and fertilizer and land use are estimated. In general, agricultural assistance is positively related to per hectare use of chemical fertilizers. The relationship between agricultural assistance and land area in production differs between high income industrialized and low income countries. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Food security is a major concern, especially for developing countries where a large percentage of population lives in rural areas and where agricultural sector represents an important weight in their economy. Agricultural and food imports play a particular key role in terms of food security in low income countries. Indeed, dependency on imports for food may raise some food insecurity issues in particular in the case of sudden price increase which raises national food bill. The national state of food availability combining food imports and domestic food production thus constitutes some crucial information. Following Diaz-Bonilla et al. (2000), this contribution aims to shed light on the determinants of food security at national level. We first build a theoretical framework linking explicitly food security measured by the Bonilla index (BI) and national policy intervention on agricultural sector or on exchange rate. Second, we focus on the link between exchange rate effects on food security, using observed data for a panel of 24 developing countries during the period 1995-2010. This empirical work shows that exchange rate may have significant impact on national food security level, especially for vulnerable developing countries; but it also confirms that exchange rate is not the main determinant. Third, the empirical methodology aims at assessing the impact of national policy responses to 2008 price surge in terms of food security using the national rate assistance (NRA) index on importable food products for 42 countries over the period 1995-2010. Our results suggest that most developing countries have largely used their possibility to play with the NRA level in order to moderate BI during the 2008 food price surge.